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"Sandhusn zieht aus" hat nichts mit dem Entledigen eines männlichen Kleidungsstückes zu tun. Er hat vielmehr einen historischen Bezug. Mit dem Niedergang des Bergbaues im Erzgebirge mussten andere Erwerbsmöglichkeiten gesucht werden. Neben dem Klöppeln und der Posamentenindustrie war dies in Geyer der Verkauf von Scheuersand, der als Nebenprodukt den Kiesgruben der Umgebung anfiel. Die Kinder die "auszogen" um eben diesen Sand zu verkaufen, wurden dann "Sandhusn" genannt. Dieser Spitzname wird übrigens bis heute für jeden Bewohner in Geyer verwendet.


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Lasix side effects

1 September 2020 This September we're asking you to send us your best lasix side effects laboratory bloopers Our members work long hours and everything they do has to be 100% correct - so sometimes the slack http://scc-geyer.de/buy-generic-lasix/ falls out of their mouths. We got the idea for this competition courtesy of Gayatri Chohan who overheard the line in lasix side effects the image when one of her colleagues answered the phone (and was overdue a holiday). What has come out of your mouth in the lab?.

Keep lasix side effects it family-friendly scientists!. The rules of the competition are simple:One entry per person (we will add your blooper to a randomly selected photo from our Biomedical Science Day archives - unless you want to send us your own photo)Use the #IBMSCompetition or #LaboratoryLaughs hashtag on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram along with your entry or email to website@ibms.orgThe competition starts Tuesday 1st September and closes at 12pm on Friday 18th SeptemberTwo entries will be chosen for the semi-finals and presented to our members in a social media poll on the week of 21th - 25th SeptemberThe winner will be announced at the end of the month and sent some goodies when we return to our officesOnce we get some entries, we will start a Facebook gallery so that you can see the all the bloopers in one place by lasix side effects clicking here.27 August 2020 The IBMS outlines and assesses the principal testing options currently available for the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19). This statement aims to support scientists and other laboratory professionals in selecting and advising on the most appropriate testing route for patients.

The information is based on known clinical need, the requirement to support the management of patients within different care settings, and lasix side effects the limited supply of rapid testing kits.Background ContextIn early August 2020, the UK government announced two new rapid SARS-CoV-2 tests. Capable of delivering a result in 90 minutes, they are due to be made available in accredited NHS laboratories, lighthouse laboratories and care homes. However, these tests are not the silver bullets in lasix side effects the coronavirus response, they are only one part of the armoury.

The most important aspect of laboratory medicine lasix side effects is the diagnostic testing pathway which includes the end to end process consisting of:correctly identifying those who need testingobtaining appropriate samples from the correct patientproducing results in a timely mannermaking the results available to the clinical decision makerinterpreting the results and taking the appropriate actionThe goal of all high quality medical laboratory services can be summarised as. Ensuring the right test, for the right patient, at the right time, and giving the ‘right’ result to inform the right response.Access to rapid testing in the UK will support individuals and communities and complement the national COVID-19 testing strategy for PCR testing across NHS and lighthouse laboratories, but will not be the solution.There is a clear need for biomedical scientists and clinical scientists to provide advice to clinical teams on the appropriate use of the range of tests currently available, including these rapid tests. All diagnostic tests have limitations and it is fundamental to patient safety that all those involved in clinical decision making are lasix side effects aware of them.Testing Options1.

Rapid testingTest definitionRapid testing is defined as an analytical test performed for a patient by a healthcare professional with a short delivery time to results (less than 4 hours).Where it is carried outRapid testing may be carried out as a point of care/near patient test.Due to the complex nature of the testing process, it is more likely that this rapid testing is carried out in a laboratory setting and supervised by Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) registered biomedical or clinical scientists.Clinical requirement. Current priorities for rapid testing are to enable the acute management of patients and clinical services where only the use of rapid testing will facilitate better lasix side effects patient care.Rapid testing devices are currently available to healthcare providers on a limited scale and have been unable and are unlikely to meet testing demand in this setting. It is therefore lasix side effects vital that rapid tests are only used where there is no other clinically acceptable alternative.As supply increases there may be a role for rapid testing in situations where a fast turnaround is beneficial such as managing an outbreak in a community setting, but only if the test is suitably validated for the patient cohort being tested.InstrumentationRapid testing utilises qualitative or semi-quantitative in vitro diagnostics (IVDs), used singly or in a small series which involve non-automated procedures.

They have been designed to give a ‘rapid’ result and can deliver SARS-CoV-2 direct viral test results from a swab sample, usually within 90-120 minutes. Where the device is sited close to the point of swab collection, a rapid result can be obtained for an individual patient.AdvantagesResults may be available lasix side effects near to the point of patient care and may support rapid patient triage. This can assist hospitals in managing emergency departments and other acute services to support bed availability and efficient patient flow.

Multiple instruments can be linked so that a set of instruments can provide small scale throughput.A lasix side effects laboratory may not need to be on the same site as the rapid testing device, depending upon the processes involved in the testing. Conditional upon the patient cohort and testing platform being used, these devices may provide sufficient lasix side effects result sensitivity to not require confirmation by a laboratory test. However, there will remain a need to repeat equivocal positive, potential false negative, and potential false positive results as deemed clinically appropriate.DisadvantagesSpeed of reporting is countered with the compromise of limited test processing capacity and is dependent upon the platform used.

Capacity can lasix side effects be as low as 9 tests or as high as 138 test per day on a 24-hour operating schedule. This is compounded by a number of systems only being able to process samples one at a time.Rapid testing devices are not enabled with automated loading and require a trained healthcare professional to operate the equipment, often with multiple interventions. A lack of result interpretation, that would normally be undertaken by HCPC registered scientists before result issue, may also result in a failure to detect erroneous results.Unfortunately, the performance characteristics of these new assays cannot always be assured, resulting in some of the faster instruments requiring equivocal lasix side effects results to be rechecked by a different method before diagnosis can be made.

This defeats the lasix side effects point of rapid testing. These tests often have significantly lower testing sensitivity than laboratory-based platforms meaning they have the potential to miss weak positive patients. This is a significant risk, particularly if this test is being used to triage patients to COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 areas of a hospital.The equipment directions for use must also be carefully scrutinised to ensure that the platform is only being used for the purposes that it has been validated for lasix side effects.

Some systems are only recommended for symptomatic patients, while others have not specified, meaning a validation on its clinical performance that is relevant to the patient cohort to be tested should be undertaken by the testing centre before implemented into routine use.Results often need to be manually linked to the patient health record as these platforms do not generally allow electronic transmission of data to patient files. This may also present challenges with the reporting of results to the NHS and appropriate public health bodies.The absence of economies of scale means that decentralised rapid testing can be prohibitively lasix side effects expensive (reports of £140 per test for reagents only), especially when compared to large scale laboratory testing (typically £20 per test for reagents). Rapid testing is the most expensive modality of testing.Rapid testing devices are currently available to healthcare providers on a limited scale – this falls short of expected testing demand lasix side effects.

It is therefore vital rapid tests are only used where there is a clinical requirement.Staffing requirementRapid testing is labour intensive due to the need for numerous interventions during the testing process and the need to operate multiple instruments.Rapid testing instruments should be operated by suitably trained members of staff and require the oversight of an accredited laboratory to ensure the instrument is appropriately evaluated and validated prior to use. Devices should be regularly maintained and properly calibrated by qualified scientific staff to ensure reliability and consistency of results.SummaryRapid testing is not a replacement for the laboratory based PCR test.It must only be used in the patient context that it has been approved and validated to undertakeThese tests often have a low level of sensitivityIt should be used only where lasix side effects it is clinically appropriate to improve patient outcomes and no equivalent laboratory alternative is availableRapid testing is the most expensive modality of testing.Rapid testing is labour intensive per sample processed when compared to traditional laboratory testing.Systems and processes must be in place to ensure that results are physically linked to the patient health record – these often require manual interventions.Clinicians and laboratory professionals must work together to ensure rapid testing is managed and used appropriately for the patient and wider healthcare systems benefit.2. Medical laboratory high throughput RT-PCR testingTest lasix side effects definitionThis is the most widespread form of testing nationally, where swab samples are processed using automated or semi-automated instruments.

This is also an area where constant innovation is improving the testing pathway. For example, a study is underway to validate tests that use a saliva sample rather than a nose/throat swab.Where it is carried outPCR testing is carried out in accredited NHS laboratories, usually hospital based, or other laboratories and should be overseen by a team of competent lasix side effects HCPC registered biomedical scientists and/or clinical scientists.Clinical requirementIt is used for testing patients, NHS staff and social care workers. It is typically the preferred test, due to its sensitivity (ability to detect weak positives), for patients before elective operations and invasive procedures.

Symptomatic patients may require further testing as the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and other respiratory infections lasix side effects may not be initially clear. It can also be used to manage lasix side effects local outbreaks, and targeted testing to prevent nosocomial infections. This is due to its suitability to large scale testing over a clinically acceptable timeframe.

Results are typically delivered within 15-24 hours back to the hospital or the requesting clinician.InstrumentationSamples are processed on highly automated or semi-automated platforms lasix side effects that are capable of undertaking a high volume of workload per day. Testing capacity can be further increased through 24-7 working arrangements, or further automation of the laboratory process. This can often be lasix side effects undertaken with minimal increases in staffing.AdvantagesResults should be available within 15 hours.

Results are transferred directly into the patient’s healthcare lasix side effects records (usually electronically) providing clinicians and public health teams reliable access to all the information they need. Results are available with the complete patient record supporting safe patient care.Thousands of results can be available quickly and efficiently supporting hospitals to return to ‘business as usual’ and re-instate routine services such as cancer and surgical services that have built up backlogs of planned care, due to suspension of surgery during the height of the pandemic.Results are provided in a high quality, clinically controlled environment, by qualified and registered staff who we expect to be working to stringent international quality standards.These assays are typically very sensitive meaning they are able to detect the vast majority of ‘positive’ patients. This is especially important when testing those with a low viral load, such as asymptomatic patients and those in the early stages of infection.DisadvantagesRoutine lasix side effects high throughput RT-PCR is provided by hospital laboratories that are undertaking a very large range of other diagnostic tests.

Laboratories will prioritise clinically urgent patients over routine services and, in rare circumstances, this may delay some testing.There may be delays associated with transporting samples to laboratories. However, there will be no delay in reporting the result where it is electronically logged in the patient record.There is a risk that the current level of laboratory testing capacity will be constricted as ‘routine workloads’ continue to return, as hospital services that lasix side effects have been suspended start to be reinstated.Staffing requirementLaboratories carrying out these tests are staffed by scientific and support staff. The IBMS lasix side effects would expect that these staff consist of HCPC registered biomedical and/or clinical scientists to oversee the service.

There may be a requirement for additional staff should the service be required to support 24/7 working, increased testing volumes or the requirement to make the enhanced service a permanent arrangement rather than a temporary ‘surge’ response.SummaryRoutine high throughput PCR testing is the primary resource of hospital-based testingThis testing is highly sensitive and has been validated for use in a wide range of clinical scenariosThis testing is laboratory based, often highly automated and typically operates in an accredited environmentThis form of testing provides results in a timely manner for the majority of clinical situations and is cost effectiveThe testing is undertaken by highly qualified staff and supervised by HCPC registered scientistsThis testing can often be upscaled with limited amounts of additional staffingRobust systems are in place for results to be linked with patient health recordsHigh quality, comprehensive data is available to public health officials when required. Laboratory based testing is the ‘usual’ route for healthcare professionals so there is a high level of confidence in the quality of the results and testing service lasix side effects provided.3. Centralised mass testingTest definitionMass testing provides testing for screening purposes in the wider population.

Swabs are collected at sampling centres from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals.Where it is carried outSamples are processed on a large scale in a laboratory setting which enables thousands of tests to be processed each day.Clinical requirementThese services lasix side effects are used for large scale community screening and care home resident testing. Results for these samples are expected to be reported within 24 hours.InstrumentationTesting is processed on highly automated platforms that are lasix side effects capable of undertaking a high volume of workload. These services typically function 24-7 to support testing from a wide geographical area.AdvantagesVery large volumes of samples can be undertaken.

This is through the use of highly automated processes that allow a small number of large laboratories to receive samples from swabbing stations across the country, including ‘pop-up’ sites.These testing facilities only focus on screening for SARS-CoV-2 so are not impacted by the need to process other tests.Individuals showing symptoms can access a test on-line and receive their result directly to their phone or email, with an expected turnaround of 24 hours.DisadvantagesThere are potential issues with sample integrity due to variable consistency from both self-sampling and pop-up stations.Data sets need to be returned to multiple parties including the individual, the GP and public health, and it has widely been reported that these centres have experienced issues with the flow of this data, particularly during the early phase of the pandemic.The limited data sets collected from the patient also mean that insufficient data is often available to public health lasix side effects officials to assist in local public health initiatives (e.g. Workplace outbreaks).Due to the scale of the testing operations any failures in the system can cause a delay upon many thousands of sample results being available in a timely manner.These new services have been stood up rapidly and therefore may have issues with long term sustainability and business continuity.These services have often not been ‘kite marked’ by recognised laboratory medicine accreditation.Staffing requirementThese laboratories are staffed by a combination of academic, scientific and support staff. It is unclear on the levels of lasix side effects HCPC registered biomedical scientists and/or clinical scientists that are currently involved in these services.

The IBMS lasix side effects expect sufficient HCPC registered staff to be employed to provide adequate supervision of non-registered staff to provide a safe service. These laboratories operate on a 24-7 basis and must be safely staffed to allow this intensity of test processing.SummaryCapacity to process very high volume testing for population screening purposesHave the infrastructure to provide results direct to the patient via text or emailThis testing is laboratory based and highly automatedThis form of testing typically provides results in a timely manner for the patient cohort being testedDo not collect sufficient data to provide public health bodies with all the information they needThe ability for these services to link result with patient health records is unknown and likely to be limited.ConclusionDespite the wide publicity that ‘rapid testing’ has received in the press it is only a small part of the national response to fighting COVID-19. There will need to be an integrated use of all three forms of testing outlined above.Rapid testing should only be utilised when results are clinically required lasix side effects quicker than can be provided by a traditional laboratory-based system.

This is due to a lack of testing capacity, limited availability of platforms and reagents, significant expense of testing and the limitations of the tests (i.e. Risk of lasix side effects incorrect results). It is paramount for patient safety that these tests are only lasix side effects used in the clinical scenarios approved by the manufacturer and local validation.

It must not be assumed that these systems are appropriate for testing in all patient cohorts.Routine high throughput RT-PCR testing is the backbone of testing for hospital patients, NHS and social care staff. It is also useful for local lasix side effects public health testing initiatives. These are high throughput, high quality services lasix side effects that utilise tests sensitive enough for the vast majority of clinical situations.

These are cost effective and adaptable operations that provide timely results. Primary and secondary healthcare professionals have high confidence in the services that they provide.Mass screening services lasix side effects are designed solely for largescale population screening. These are large scale single test services that have the ability to provide results directly back to the patient, and receive samples from a wide geographical area.

Use of these services allows the hospital laboratories to focus on immediate patient care needs lasix side effects for their local populations.Highlights and updates Delaware exchange overviewHow hard is Delaware fighting to preserve the Affordable Care Act’s provisions?. Compare to other state efforts.Delaware’s exchange is a partnership between the state (Choose Health Delaware) and HHS, lasix side effects with residents enrolling through HealthCare.gov. Delaware is responsible for plan management and consumer assistance while the federal government handles all other functions.

As of early 2020, there were 22,497 people with effectuated individual market coverage through Delaware’s exchange.Two health insurance companies offered coverage in the exchange in 2017, but that dropped to just one – Highmark BCBS of Delaware – in 2018, and Highmark lasix side effects continues to be the only insurer offering plans in the state’s exchange in 2020.Highmark already covered more than half of Delaware’s exchange enrollees as of 2017, but nearly 12,000 people with Aetna coverage had to select new plans from Highmark for 2018.Delaware received federal approval to implement a reinsurance program for 2020, and also enacted legislation to codify ACA consumer protections into state law. Highmark had already proposed a premium reduction for 2020, and the rate decrease was even more significant once the reinsurance program was approved. Highmark has lasix side effects proposed another slight rate decrease for 2021.

Without the reinsurance program, Highmark’s proposed rate change would have been an increase lasix side effects from 2020.Average approved rate decrease of 1% for 2021Open enrollment for 2021 health plans runs from November 1 – December 15, 2020. Outside of that window, residents can enroll or make changes to their coverage if they experience a qualifying event.Highmark, which is the only insurer in Delaware’s marketplace, proposed an overall average rate decrease of half a percent for 2021 (across all plans, the proposed rate changes vary from a decrease of 3.6 percent to an increase of 5.3 percent). But after the rate review process was complete, lasix side effects Delaware’s Insurance Commissioner, Trinidad Navarro, announced that Highmark’s average premiums would decrease by 1 percent for 2021.The state’s reinsurance program, which debuted in 2020, reduced Highmark’s proposed rates for 2021 by 2.5 percentage points, so without the reinsurance program, the proposed rate change would have been an increase of about 2 percent.

And although the approved rate decrease is a little more significant than Highmark had initially proposed, it’s likely that rates would have increased slightly for 2021 without the reinsurance program [More details about the state’s reinsurance program are described below, including the program’s enhanced benefits in 2021.]Highmark has 21,828 members enrolled in ACA-compliant individual market plans. Highmark is discontinuing two bronze plans at the end of 2020, and introducing a total of six new plans (bronze, silver, gold, and platinum) for 2021.New Delaware law caps insulin out-of-pocket at $100 per month on state-regulated lasix side effects health plansDelaware HB263, enacted in July 2020, caps out-of-pocket costs for insulin at $100 per month on all individual and group plans that are regulated by the state of Delaware (note that states to not regulate self-insured group plans). Plans are also required to include at least one insulin product in the lowest tier (ie, least expensive) of the plan’s covered drug list.The rule takes effect for plans that are issued or renewed after the end of 2020.Delaware codifies ACA consumer protections into lasix side effects state lawIn August 2019, Delaware Governor John Carney signed SB35, codifying various ACA consumer protections into Delaware state law and joining several other states that have taken similar action over the last few years.

Although the ACA remains the law of the land, Delaware’s new law ensures that if the ACA is ever repealed or changed, its consumer protections will remain in effect in Delaware.This includes provisions such as guaranteed-issue coverage (regardless of medical history), coverage for essential health benefits, a ban on lifetime and annual benefit maximums, limits on out-of-pocket costs, and rules regarding the factors that insurers can use to set premiums.Governor Carney also signed legislation that ensures adult Medicaid enrollees in Delaware will have dental coverage.Delaware’s reinsurance program took effect in 2020In June 2019, Governor Carney signed HB193 into law, paving the way for Delaware to create a reinsurance program in order to stabilize the state’s individual insurance market. The legislation called for an assessment on insurers in the state, plus federal pass-through funding to cover the cost of the reinsurance program.Reinsurance programs work by paying a lasix side effects portion of high-cost claims, which reduces costs for insurers (in 2020, Delaware’s reinsurance program pays 75 percent of claims that are between $65,000 and $215,000. In 2021, it will pay 80 percent of claims that are between $65,000 and $335,000).

Because their lasix side effects claims costs are lower, insurers can charge lower premiums. This results in higher enrollment among people who have to pay full-price, and it lasix side effects also means that the federal government spends less on premium subsidies, as the subsidies don’t have to be as large in order to bring net premiums down to an affordable level.States can use a 1332 waiver in order to request pass-through funding, which means the state (instead of the federal government) gets to keep the savings that result from the premium subsidies being smaller. The state then uses that money to fund the reinsurance program.

Several states have implemented reinsurance programs over the last couple of years, and have seen improvement in their individual markets as a result.Delaware estimated lasix side effects that the reinsurance program would cost about $44 million in 2020, and that 80 percent of that would be covered by the federal pass-through funding, with the state generating the other 20 percent via the health insurer assessment (1 percent in years when the ACA’s Health Insurance Provider Fee is assessed, and 2.75 percent in years that it isn’t). CMS determined that Delaware’s pass-through funding would amount to $21.7 million in 2020, which was less than the state had initially projected.Delaware submitted a 1332 waiver proposal to CMS in July 2019, and it was approved in mid-August. With the reinsurance program in place, Delaware projected that premiums in the individual market to be 13.7 percent lower in 2020 than they would otherwise have been, and that lasix side effects enrollment in the individual market would increase by as much as 2.3 percent, thanks to smaller premiums for people who don’t get premium subsidies (for those who do get subsidies, the subsidies shrink commensurately with the cost of the benchmark plan).19% rate decrease for 2020, thanks in large part to reinsuranceHighmark initially proposed an average rate decrease of 5.85 percent for 2020.

The filing, which was submitted before the state’s reinsurance legislation was enacted, noted that it did not account for the reinsurance program (including the insurer assessment that would fund the program as well as the impact of the reinsurance program itself), and that a new filing would need to be submitted if and when the reinsurance program was approved.The 1332 waiver proposal that Delaware submitted to CMS in July noted that with the reinsurance program in place, premiums were expected to be 13.7 percent lower in 2020 than they would otherwise have been, and up to 20 percent lower in future years than they would otherwise have been (the waiver proposal is for a five-year program).Ultimately, a 19 percent average rate decrease was approved for Highmark’s lasix side effects plans, which was very much in line with the state’s initial projections (ie, the 5.9 percent decrease that Highmark had proposed, in addition to the 13.7 percent estimated decrease due to the reinsurance program).For perspective, unsubsidized premiums in Delaware are among the highest in the country in 2019. The average unsubsidized premium in Delaware is $842/month, versus $612 across all of the states that use HealthCare.gov. Enrollment grew in 2020, after declining for three years in a row23,961 people enrolled in plans through Delaware’s exchange during the open lasix side effects enrollment period for 2020 coverage.

That was an increase of about 6 percent over the number of people who enrolled the year before, and came on the heels lasix side effects of three straight year-over-year enrollment declines.The enrollment drops in recent years were not unexpected. For 2019, two significant factors were the elimination of the individual mandate penalty after the end of 2018 and the Trump Administration’s decision to sharply reduce funding for exchange marketing and enrollment assistance, after already implementing funding cuts the year before. In many states, the expansion of short-term plans also played a role in lasix side effects declining enrollment for 2019, but Delaware regulators implemented emergency regulations that limit short-term plans to just three months in duration, eliminating the option for people to use them as long-term coverage alternatives to ACA-compliant plans.

There was a window, however, from early October until the end of November, when residents in Delaware were able to purchase longer short-term plans, and some may have done so in order to obtain coverage for much of 2019.The enrollment increase in 2020 also was not unexpected, as Delaware’s new reinsurance program resulted in lower premiums for people who don’t get premium subsidies, making coverage more affordable for that population.Enrollment in individual market plans through Delaware’s exchange has reached the following totals during open enrollment each year. Although enrollment in the exchange dropped about 20 percent from 2016 through 2019, Delaware’s 1332 waiver proposal noted that total lasix side effects individual market enrollment in the state (including on-exchange and off-exchange enrollment) had dropped by 37 percent in that same time period. Off-exchange enrollees don’t get premium subsidies, but the state’s new reinsurance program has made their coverage more affordable, potentially lasix side effects resulting in enrollment gains outside the marketplace as well.

2019 rates and plans. Highmark silver loaded instead of broad loadingDelaware was lasix side effects one of five states where the cost of cost-sharing reductions (CSR) was added to premiums for plans at all metal levels in 2018, rather than just silver plan premiums. For 2019 coverage, the rate and form filing submission window in Delaware ran from May 9, 2018 to June 20, 2018.In April 2018, the Department of Insurance published an extensive guide to 2019 rate and form filing submissions, but it did not address the CSR loading issue.

The Department of Insurance clarified that they were not leaving the decision entirely up to Highmark, and had been involved lasix side effects in numerous meetings with the insurer about 2019 coverage.Highmark, which also offers coverage in the exchanges in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, recorded their first profitable year in the ACA-compliant market in 2017, after losing a billion dollars in the ACA-compliant market from 2014 through 2016.When the rates were publicized in early August, Highmark had requested a 5.7 percent average premium increase for 2019 (this was a revised filing. Their initial proposed rate increase that lasix side effects still shows up on ratereview.healthcare.gov was 13 percent). And when the Delaware Department of Insurance published final rates later in August, the approved average rate increase for Highmark was just 3 percent.Part of the reason Highmark revised their rates was that the Delaware Insurance Department has been working on regulations to limit short-term health insurance plans to three months in duration and prohibit renewals.

Highmark’s initial filing had included higher lasix side effects rates (a 1 percent load) to offset the fact that the risk pool was expected to be sicker once the federal regulations were relaxed to allow much longer short-term plans. But Delaware regulators stepped in to prevent that, and the result is a more stable individual market, since healthy people won’t have the option to leave the ACA-compliant market and switch to year-long short-term plans instead.The final rate approval notice clarifies that the cost of CSR was added only to silver plan rates for 2019, as opposed to the broad load strategy that was used for 2018. And the approved rate notice also clarified that the cost of CSR was not added to premiums for plans purchased lasix side effects outside the exchange, which means that Highmark only added the cost of CSR to on-exchange silver plans.

That’s the best approach for consumers, as it allows people who don’t qualify for premium subsidies lasix side effects to purchase an off-exchange plan (if they want a silver plan) and not have the added cost of CSR baked into their premiums. 2018 coverage. Aetna out, Highmark left as the only lasix side effects insurer.

25% average rate increase included adding cost of CSR to all premiums.Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield of Delaware had the majority of the market share in the state’s exchange in 2017, and they became the only available option as of 2018. Aetna confirmed in May 2017 that they planned to exit all four of the exchanges where they offered coverage in 2017, including Delaware, at lasix side effects the end of the year. The Delaware Department of Insurance reported that Aetna insured 11,854 people via exchange plans in 2017 (about 42 percent of the exchange enrollees), all of whom needed to pick a new plan for 2018.In response to Aetna’s market exit announcement, Trinidad Navarro, Delaware’s Insurance Commissioner, said “I would hope that our elected officials in Washington will come up with solutions to guarantee lasix side effects that health insurance in Delaware and elsewhere is both available and affordable.

Continuing funding for Cost-Sharing Reductions is a first step in the right direction.”The Trump Administration’s lack of commitment to funding the ACA’s cost-sharing reductions (CSR) was a driving factor in the rates that insurers filed for 2018. Insurers in most states — including Delaware — lasix side effects added the cost of CSR to premiums for 2018. That ended up being a prescient decision, as the Trump Administration announced in mid-October that CSR funding would end immediately.Highmark initially proposed an average rate increase of 33.6 percent, but ultimately agreed to a 25 percent average rate increase in October.

Their rate filing noted that the average rate lasix side effects increase would have been about 16.8 percent if CSR funding had continued and if the federal government was robustly enforcing the individual mandate (the mandate was still in effect in 2018, although it’s been eliminated as of 2019. But insurers were concerned in 2017 that the Trump Administration might not adequately enforce the mandate for 2018, leading to higher premiums in many areas).The Delaware lasix side effects Department of Insurance confirmed that the cost of CSR was added to premiums at all metal levels for 2018 (ie, a broad load). And Highmark’s rate template indicated that average rate increases for all of their plans were in a very narrow range of about 23 – 26.5 percent, with the average increase for silver plans is roughly the same as the average increase for plans at other metal levels.Ultimately, only a handful of other states opted to add the cost of CSR to plans at all metal levels.

Colorado, Mississippi, West Virginia, and lasix side effects Indiana. For 2019, Delaware and Colorado both switched to adding the cost of CSR only to silver plans, although Mississippi, West Virginia, and Indiana have continued to use a broad load strategy.Highmark had about 91,600 members enrolled in exchange plans across Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia in 2018 (including all of the exchange enrollees in Delaware, since Highmark is the only insurer offering exchange plans in the state. That’s down from about 350,000 exchange enrollees in those three states in earlier years of exchange implementation, when the insurer was actively pursuing lasix side effects that market.

But amid concerns about financial losses in the exchange markets, Highmark scaled back, reduced network sizes, and generally became much less aggressive in their approach to exchange lasix side effects market share. In 2017, however, for the first time, Highmark made money on its exchange business, after losses in the prior years. Exchange plans make up a tiny fraction of the insurer’s overall book of business, which includes 4.6 million members.2017 ratesTwo companies offered health insurance through Delaware’s exchange lasix side effects for 2017.

Aetna and Highmark lasix side effects Blue Cross Blue Shield of Delaware. Aetna had a PPO division and an HMO division, which were listed as separate entities for rate filings. Although Aetna exited lasix side effects the exchanges at the end of 2016 in most of the states where they had been participating, Delaware was one of four states where continued to offer exchange plans in 2017 (although they ultimately exited all four states at the end of 2017).In Delaware, the approved average rate increases for 2017 were:Aetna Health (HMO).

23.6 percentAetna Life (PPO). 22.8 percentHighmark BCBS lasix side effects of Delaware. 32.5 percentA public comment period on the proposed rates ran through July lasix side effects 15, 2016.

The rates that were approved were very similar to what the carriers had requested when they originally filed rates for 2017.Initially, Delaware Insurance Commissioner Karen Weldin Stewart had approved a lower-than-requested rate for Highmark, and forwarded that on to CMS for review. But in light of the carriers opting to leave exchanges in numerous states around the country, lasix side effects CMS urged Delaware to accept Highmark’s initial rates, and the state agreed. As a result, no carriers left the Delaware exchange at the end of 2016, while most other states saw at least some insurers exit their exchanges.Higher subsidies offset the bulk of the rate hikes for exchange enrollees who are subsidy-eligible, which accounts for the large majority of enrollees.2016 ratesA study released in December 2014 by The Commonwealth Fund showed just a 3 percent increase in average marketplace premiums for Delaware between 2014 and 2015.

The weighted analysis looked at rates across all metal tiers and in urban/suburban/rural areas of most lasix side effects states.But rate increases the following year, for 2016 coverage, were much more significant. On September lasix side effects 29, 2015, Stewart announced final rates for 2016, after vowing earlier in the year that the Insurance Department in Delaware would “vigorously examine” the 2016 rate proposals they received from the state’s two exchange insurers, hoping to find ways to reduce the final rates.Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield of Delaware initially requested an average rate increase of just over 25 percent in the individual market, although they increased their proposed rate increase to 33 percent in August. State regulators ultimately approved a 22.4 percent average rate increase for Highmark’s individual market plans, and Highmark had almost 95 percent of the individual market share in Delaware, including both on and off-exchange enrollments.Aetna proposed raising rates by an average of nearly 17 percent for 2016, which was approved by regulators.In 2014, Highmark garnered more than 90 percent of the exchange market share.

For 2015, they only increased their average rates by 4 lasix side effects percent. Highmark’s rates increased significantly for 2016, but their market share remained similar to what it had been in 2015.No discrimination against transgender enrolleesIn March 2016, Delaware became the 15th state to prohibit health insurance companies from discriminating against transgender enrollees. The rules apply both on and off exchange, and in the individual and group market.The bulletin issued by Insurance Commissioner Karen Weldin Stewart specifically notes that while the plan that constitutes the Essential Health Benefits benchmark plan in Delaware for 2016 did have an exclusion for “change of sex surgery” (except for correcting a congenital defect), the bulletin detailing the ban on transgender discrimination supersedes the benchmark plan design, and that insurers may not issue such a blanket exclusion.Specialty drugs costs are capped under Delaware lawDelaware is lasix side effects one of several states that have taken steps to limit patients’ out-of-pocket costs for prescription drugs.

Delaware law limits specialty drugs to $150/month copays lasix side effects or coinsurance. The regulations apply on and off-exchange, and to employer-sponsored plans that are regulated by the state (self-insured plans are regulated by the federal government under ERISA instead).And Delaware insurance plans are not allowed to designate all drugs in a particular drug class as specialty drugs, so patients shouldn’t have a situation in which their only available drugs are specialty drugs.Delaware opted to stay with federally-run exchangeIn the months leading up to the Supreme Court’s 2015 ruling on King v. Burwell, Delaware devised a lasix side effects back-up plan.

Because Delaware uses the federally-run marketplace (the state has a partnership exchange, which is a variation of the federally-run exchange), subsidies were in jeopardy in the state. If the King plaintiffs had prevailed, an estimated lasix side effects 18,000 people would have lost their subsidies in Delaware. And statewide, the entire individual market lasix side effects would have seen spiraling premiums over the next few years as healthy individuals dropped coverage that became unaffordable without subsidies.To avoid that outcome, the state submitted a proposal for transitioning from a state-federal partnership exchange to a federally-supported state-based marketplace (Oregon, Nevada, Arkansas, Kentucky, and New Mexico use that model as of 2019, with state-run exchanges that utilize Healthcare.gov for enrollment).

And on June 15, 2015, HHS issued conditional approval for Delaware’s plan (Pennsylvania and Arkansas also got conditional approval for state-run exchanges as contingency plans in case the Court had sided with King).At that point, Delaware was the only state with a Democratic governor and Democratic majority in both congressional chambers that didn’t have a state-run exchange, in large part because the state’s small population would make it financially difficult to sustain an exchange.But then on June 25, the Supreme Court ruled that subsidies are legal in every state, including those that use the federally-run marketplace, meaning that subsidies would continue to be available in Delaware regardless of whether the state runs its own exchange. Initially, it was lasix side effects unclear whether Delaware would continue with their plan to implement a supported state-based marketplace. The state issued a press release immediately after the King verdict was announced, stating that they would continue to evaluate the possibility of transitioning the exchange, and make a decision later in the summer.But in August 2015, Delaware officials announced that they would continue to operate as a state-federal partnership exchange, noting that it would be more cost-effective than operating their own exchange.Delaware health insurance exchange linksChoose Health Delaware800-318-2596HealthCare.gov800-318-2596Health Benefit Exchange informationExchange information from the Delaware Health Care CommissionWho Serves on the Delaware Health Care Commission?.

State Exchange lasix side effects Profile. DelawareThe Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation overview of Delaware’s progress toward creating a state health insurance exchange.Louise Norris is an individual health insurance broker who has been writing about health insurance and health reform since 2006.

She has written dozens of opinions and educational pieces about the Affordable Care Act for healthinsurance.org. Her state health exchange updates are regularly cited by media who cover health reform and by other health insurance experts..

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Case presentationA 32-year-old cardiology resident was scheduled to round http://scc-geyer.de/buy-generic-lasix/ on the COVID-19 wards lasix interactions at a large, government teaching hospital in Bahrain. To cover the increasing workload, the hospital required additional medical personnel to provide care for the numerous COVID-19 patients that were being seen. Prior to lasix interactions examining COVID-19-positive patients, she donned appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)—a gown, gloves, N95 mask, and face shield. As part of her physical exam, she was obliged to auscultate her patients with a stethoscope, listening for cardiopulmonary abnormalities that can be comorbid with severe COVID-19 infection. Thus, she was required to unzip her gown and keep lasix interactions her stethoscope either in her ears or around her neck.

She used a standard-length Littman Cardiology™ stethoscope, requiring her to be in close proximity to the patient (i.e. Lean over to the patient’s level).One day after her rounds, she developed a sore lasix interactions throat. She subsequently was tested positive for COVID-19 via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resident cardiologist remembered one patient that she had examined where she lasix interactions suspected the transmission occurred. She recalls examining a patient who was COVID-19 positive.

Prior to the patient’s intubation she applied her own stethoscope lasix interactions directly to the patient’s chest to perform auscultation. The resident was perspiring and beginning to feel exhausted from her prior rounding and was breathing heavily as she unzipped her gown to place the stethoscope back within. The resident believes that COVID-19 viral particles which were transmitted to the stethoscope became aerosolized and inhaled as she brought the stethoscope close to her mouth while tucking it back into her gown. The resident recovered, re-tested negative for COVID-19, and has now returned to her normal duties.The COVID-19 lasix interactions pandemic has called into question the triple-faceted role of the stethoscope. A diagnostic tool, symbol of patient–provider connection, and possible vector for infectious disease (Figure 1).

A recent article in the American Journal of Medicine discusses developments in each arm of this triple role with reference to COVID-19, arguing that developments in stethoscope diagnostic technology, a need to bolster clinical skills, and developments in lasix interactions stethoscope hygiene methods will perpetuate both its relevance and safety. This argument was made in light of those who believe the stethoscope will become obsolete with the development of more advanced technologies, as well as its potential to transmit disease.1 It is clear that a contaminated stethoscope might pose a danger to patients and providers, and can be a potential vector for the transmission of COVID-19, as illustrated in the case above. Thus, providers should seek to educate themselves on stethoscope contamination, assess the current methods of hygiene, and innovate accordingly lasix interactions rather than cast the stethoscope aside. Figure 1The three-faceted role of the stethoscope. The stethoscope lies at the intersection of three roles in lasix interactions medicine.

Diagnostic tool. Connection between lasix interactions provider and patients. And a potential vector for infectious disease. As increased infection control vigilance has placed the stethoscope in a position of contention. Each facet of the stethoscope must be weighed in lasix interactions consideration of medicines’s cherished symbol.Figure 1The three-faceted role of the stethoscope.

The stethoscope lies at the intersection of three roles in medicine. Diagnostic tool lasix interactions. Connection between provider and patients. And a potential vector lasix interactions for infectious disease. As increased get redirected here infection control vigilance has placed the stethoscope in a position of contention.

Each facet of the stethoscope lasix interactions must be weighed in consideration of medicines’s cherished symbol.Studies have demonstrated that stethoscopes can harbour similar levels and types of microbes to those on one’s hand.2 Thus, it is no surprise that the stethoscope has been christened as the physician’s ‘third hand’, with reference both to its potential for pathogen transmission and its integral role in patient–provider connection. Despite this, no clear guidelines exist for performing stethoscope hygiene. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifies the lasix interactions stethoscope as a ‘non-critical’ medical device (i.e. Only in contact with intact skin, not with bodily fluids), and recommends cleaning between as often as after contact with each patient to once weekly using an alcohol or bleach-based disinfectant.3 It has been demonstrated that viruses, including COVID-19,4 are capable of surviving on skin and other surfaces for an extended period of time.5 Thus, current guidelines may not adequately reflect the risk that stethoscope contamination poses.COVID-19 has fostered an era of increased infection control vigilance, and thus the benefits of the stethoscope must be rationally weighed against the risks. In the vignette posed here, lasix interactions the cardiology resident felt the need to use her stethoscope to assess the COVID-19 patients on her round.

Her likely rationale was the utility it provides in assessing the variety of cardiopulmonary abnormalities that can manifest during a COVID-19 infection. One of the most common manifestations of COVID-19 infection is multifocal pneumonia, often occurring prior to acute respiratory distress and need for mechanical ventilation.6 While pneumonia is diagnosed most definitively using imaging modalities (CT and X-ray) and laboratory testing, resource-limited scenarios might necessitate the usage of a stethoscope to listen for pulmonary indications (coarse breath sounds). Furthermore, there is growing evidence that cardiovascular disease is highly comorbid with COVID-19 lasix interactions infection, leading to worse outcomes. The most common cardiovascular comorbidities among hospitalized COVID-19 patients are hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus.7,8 In addition, recent reports have implicated COVID-19 in causing myocardial injury and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.9 Considering the sequelae of COVID-19 cardiopulmonary manifestations, auscultation using a stethoscope can be highly warranted. Therefore, emphasis must be placed on ensuring that the stethoscope can be used lasix interactions safely.Assessments of stethoscope hygiene practices have widely demonstrated deficits in adherence and method.

Direct observational studies have demonstrated stethoscope hygiene rates using recommended methods (wiping with alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) between 11.3% and 24%, with unconventional practices also being reported such as placing a glove over the stethoscope prior to auscultation or washing it with water/hand towel in a sink.10,11 Such findings imply that while stethoscope hygiene practices are deficient, providers who are cognizant of stethoscope contamination are struggling to find an effective form of hygiene that does not impede workflow—a proverbial ‘cry for help.’ With regard to current methods of stethoscope hygiene, providers cite lack of access to cleaning supplies, forgetfulness, or a lack of time as reasons for not performing stethoscope hygiene.12Healthcare guidelines advise against using personal stethoscopes in contact precaution settings in order to limit the potential for cross-contamination. Rather, single-patient lasix interactions disposable stethoscopes are often used for such patients. However, the audio quality of single-patient stethoscopes is quite poor,13 and it has been demonstrated that these stethoscopes can be contaminated with pathogens that can potentially be transmitted to providers, who must share this stethoscope.14 Proper cleaning of these stethoscopes between usage may not occur in high-workflow environments, such as the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, a more feasible and effective modality of stethoscope hygiene is warranted.A ray of hope for stethoscope hygiene is lasix interactions technological innovation. Among the solutions presented in recent years have been a UV-LED case for the stethoscope diaphragm,1, stethoscopes made from antimicrobial copper alloys,16 and disposable stethoscope diaphragm covers.17 The challenge imposed by the first two innovations is a lack of complete microbial disinfection.

Given that it is unknown what viral dose threshold corresponds to COVID-19 pathogenesis, current infection control standards might necessitate a method that ensures zero lasix interactions transmission. Stethoscope diaphragm covers alone can provide an aseptic contact surface during auscultation,17 but one is likely to encounter the same impediments stated for conventional stethoscope cleaning.12 A company based in San Diego, USA (AseptiScope Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) has attempted to overcome this issue by developing a touch-free diaphragm barrier dispenser.1 A recent article discussed the role of stethoscope contamination during COVID-19, stating that a specific barrier for the stethoscope is needed to prevent stethoscope contamination and subsequent transmission to patients and providers.18 A touch-free stethoscope diaphragm dispenser might be a feasible solution for this need.In the era of COVID-19, the stethoscope carries both profound utility as well as risk to patients if effective hygiene practices are not implemented. Thus, providers need to exercise caution when auscultating patients with COVID-19 given the risk for cross-contamination. However, rather than casting aside the stethoscope due to this risk, safety should be bolstered through education, hygiene practice, and consideration of lasix interactions innovative solutions.Conflict of interest. A.S.M.

Is a co-founder and the lasix interactions Chief Clinical Officer for AseptiScope Inc. (San Diego, CA, USA). None of the other authors have conflicts to lasix interactions disclose. ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material at European Heart Journal online. Published on behalf of the European lasix interactions Society of Cardiology.

All rights reserved. © The Author(s) lasix interactions 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

Case presentationA 32-year-old cardiology resident was lasix side effects scheduled to round http://scc-geyer.de/buy-generic-lasix/ on the COVID-19 wards at a large, government teaching hospital in Bahrain. To cover the increasing workload, the hospital required additional medical personnel to provide care for the numerous COVID-19 patients that were being seen. Prior to examining COVID-19-positive patients, she donned appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)—a gown, lasix side effects gloves, N95 mask, and face shield. As part of her physical exam, she was obliged to auscultate her patients with a stethoscope, listening for cardiopulmonary abnormalities that can be comorbid with severe COVID-19 infection.

Thus, she was required to unzip her gown and keep her stethoscope either in her ears or around her lasix side effects neck. She used a standard-length Littman Cardiology™ stethoscope, requiring her to be in close proximity to the patient (i.e. Lean over lasix side effects to the patient’s level).One day after her rounds, she developed a sore throat. She subsequently was tested positive for COVID-19 via polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

The resident cardiologist remembered one patient that she had examined where she lasix side effects suspected the transmission occurred. She recalls examining a patient who was COVID-19 positive. Prior to the patient’s intubation she applied lasix side effects her own stethoscope directly to the patient’s chest to perform auscultation. The resident was perspiring and beginning to feel exhausted from her prior rounding and was breathing heavily as she unzipped her gown to place the stethoscope back within.

The resident believes that COVID-19 viral particles which were transmitted to the stethoscope became aerosolized and inhaled as she brought the stethoscope close to her mouth while tucking it back into her gown. The resident recovered, re-tested negative lasix side effects for COVID-19, and has now returned to her normal duties.The COVID-19 pandemic has called into question the triple-faceted role of the stethoscope. A diagnostic tool, symbol of patient–provider connection, and possible vector for infectious disease (Figure 1). A recent article in the American Journal of Medicine discusses developments in each arm of this triple role with reference to COVID-19, arguing that developments in stethoscope diagnostic technology, a need to lasix side effects bolster clinical skills, and developments in stethoscope hygiene methods will perpetuate both its relevance and safety.

This argument was made in light of those who believe the stethoscope will become obsolete with the development of more advanced technologies, as well as its potential to transmit disease.1 It is clear that a contaminated stethoscope might pose a danger to patients and providers, and can be a potential vector for the transmission of COVID-19, as illustrated in the case above. Thus, providers should seek to educate themselves on stethoscope contamination, assess the current methods of hygiene, and innovate accordingly rather than lasix side effects cast the stethoscope aside. Figure 1The three-faceted role of the stethoscope. The stethoscope lies at the intersection of lasix side effects three roles in medicine.

Diagnostic tool. Connection between provider lasix side effects and patients. And a potential vector for infectious disease. As increased infection control vigilance has placed the stethoscope in a position of contention.

Each facet of the stethoscope must be weighed in consideration of medicines’s cherished symbol.Figure 1The three-faceted role lasix side effects of the stethoscope. The stethoscope lies at the intersection of three roles in medicine. Diagnostic tool lasix side effects. Connection between provider and patients.

And a potential vector for infectious disease lasix side effects. As increased infection control vigilance http://scc-geyer.de/where-to-buy-lasix/ has placed the stethoscope in a position of contention. Each facet of the stethoscope must be weighed lasix side effects in consideration of medicines’s cherished symbol.Studies have demonstrated that stethoscopes can harbour similar levels and types of microbes to those on one’s hand.2 Thus, it is no surprise that the stethoscope has been christened as the physician’s ‘third hand’, with reference both to its potential for pathogen transmission and its integral role in patient–provider connection. Despite this, no clear guidelines exist for performing stethoscope hygiene.

The Centers lasix side effects for Disease Control (CDC) classifies the stethoscope as a ‘non-critical’ medical device (i.e. Only in contact with intact skin, not with bodily fluids), and recommends cleaning between as often as after contact with each patient to once weekly using an alcohol or bleach-based disinfectant.3 It has been demonstrated that viruses, including COVID-19,4 are capable of surviving on skin and other surfaces for an extended period of time.5 Thus, current guidelines may not adequately reflect the risk that stethoscope contamination poses.COVID-19 has fostered an era of increased infection control vigilance, and thus the benefits of the stethoscope must be rationally weighed against the risks. In the vignette posed here, the cardiology resident felt lasix side effects the need to use her stethoscope to assess the COVID-19 patients on her round. Her likely rationale was the utility it provides in assessing the variety of cardiopulmonary abnormalities that can manifest during a COVID-19 infection.

One of the most common manifestations of COVID-19 infection is multifocal pneumonia, often occurring prior to acute respiratory distress and need for mechanical ventilation.6 While pneumonia is diagnosed most definitively using imaging modalities (CT and X-ray) and laboratory testing, resource-limited scenarios might necessitate the usage of a stethoscope to listen for pulmonary indications (coarse breath sounds). Furthermore, there is growing evidence that cardiovascular disease is highly comorbid with COVID-19 infection, lasix side effects leading to worse outcomes. The most common cardiovascular comorbidities among hospitalized COVID-19 patients are hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus.7,8 In addition, recent reports have implicated COVID-19 in causing myocardial injury and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.9 Considering the sequelae of COVID-19 cardiopulmonary manifestations, auscultation using a stethoscope can be highly warranted. Therefore, emphasis must be placed on ensuring lasix side effects that the stethoscope can be used safely.Assessments of stethoscope hygiene practices have widely demonstrated deficits in adherence and method.

Direct observational studies have demonstrated stethoscope hygiene rates using recommended methods (wiping with alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) between 11.3% and 24%, with unconventional practices also being reported such as placing a glove over the stethoscope prior to auscultation or washing it with water/hand towel in a sink.10,11 Such findings imply that while stethoscope hygiene practices are deficient, providers who are cognizant of stethoscope contamination are struggling to find an effective form of hygiene that does not impede workflow—a proverbial ‘cry for help.’ With regard to current methods of stethoscope hygiene, providers cite lack of access to cleaning supplies, forgetfulness, or a lack of time as reasons for not performing stethoscope hygiene.12Healthcare guidelines advise against using personal stethoscopes in contact precaution settings in order to limit the potential for cross-contamination. Rather, single-patient disposable stethoscopes are often used for such patients lasix side effects. However, the audio quality of single-patient stethoscopes is quite poor,13 and it has been demonstrated that these stethoscopes can be contaminated with pathogens that can potentially be transmitted to providers, who must share this stethoscope.14 Proper cleaning of these stethoscopes between usage may not occur in high-workflow environments, such as the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, a lasix side effects more feasible and effective modality of stethoscope hygiene is warranted.A ray of hope for stethoscope hygiene is technological innovation.

Among the solutions presented in recent years have been a UV-LED case for the stethoscope diaphragm,1, stethoscopes made from antimicrobial copper alloys,16 and disposable stethoscope diaphragm covers.17 The challenge imposed by the first two innovations is a lack of complete microbial disinfection. Given that it is unknown what viral dose threshold corresponds to COVID-19 pathogenesis, lasix side effects current infection control standards might necessitate a method that ensures zero transmission. Stethoscope diaphragm covers alone can provide an aseptic contact surface during auscultation,17 but one is likely to encounter the same impediments stated for conventional stethoscope cleaning.12 A company based in San Diego, USA (AseptiScope Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) has attempted to overcome this issue by developing a touch-free diaphragm barrier dispenser.1 A recent article discussed the role of stethoscope contamination during COVID-19, stating that a specific barrier for the stethoscope is needed to prevent stethoscope contamination and subsequent transmission to patients and providers.18 A touch-free stethoscope diaphragm dispenser might be a feasible solution for this need.In the era of COVID-19, the stethoscope carries both profound utility as well as risk to patients if effective hygiene practices are not implemented. Thus, providers need to exercise caution when auscultating patients with COVID-19 given the risk for cross-contamination.

However, rather than casting lasix side effects aside the stethoscope due to this risk, safety should be bolstered through education, hygiene practice, and consideration of innovative solutions.Conflict of interest. A.S.M. Is a co-founder and the Chief lasix side effects Clinical Officer for AseptiScope Inc. (San Diego, CA, USA).

None of lasix side effects the other authors have conflicts to disclose. ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material at European Heart Journal online. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

How should I use Lasix?

Take Lasix by mouth with a glass of water. You may take Lasix with or without food. If it upsets your stomach, take it with food or milk. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Remember that you will need to pass more urine after taking Lasix. Do not take your medicine at a time of day that will cause you problems. Do not take at bedtime.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of Lasix in children. While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of Lasix contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: Lasix is only for you. Do not share Lasix with others.

Lasix to bumex conversion

Start Preamble lasix to bumex conversion Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT is lasix an ace inhibitor. Notice of funding opportunity. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health emergency lasix to bumex conversion Start Printed Page 63654has had a significant impact on transit operations. During a series of FTA listening sessions held over the last three months, transit agencies asked FTA to support research to identify solutions to address the operational challenges that they are facing as a result of COVID-19.

In response, FTA makes available through this Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) funding to support research demonstration grants to public transit agencies to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the COVID-19 public health emergency. Demonstration grants lasix to bumex conversion under this NOFO are authorized under FTA's Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C. 5312). Eligible projects will demonstrate innovative solutions to improve the operational efficiencies of transit systems and enhance mobility for their communities in four major areas.

(1) Vehicle, lasix to bumex conversion facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and disinfection. (2) exposure mitigation measures. (3) innovative mobility such as contactless payments. And (4) measures that lasix to bumex conversion strengthen public confidence in transit services.

The total funding available for awards under this NOFO is $10,000,000. FTA may lasix to bumex conversion supplement this amount if additional funding becomes available. Applicants must submit completed proposals for funding opportunity FTA-2020-015-TRI through the GRANTS.GOV “APPLY” function by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on November 2, 2020.

Prospective applicants should register as soon as possible on the GRANTS.GOV website lasix to bumex conversion to ensure they can complete the application process before the submission deadline. Application instructions are available on FTA's website at http://transit.dot.gov/​howtoapply and in the “FIND” module of GRANTS.GOV. FTA will not accept mail and fax submissions. Start Further Info lasix to bumex conversion Please send any questions on this notice to Jamel El-Hamri email.

Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone. 2020-366-8985. A Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD) is available for individuals who are lasix to bumex conversion deaf or hard of hearing at 1-800-877-8339. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Table of Contents A.

Program Description lasix to bumex conversion B. Federal Award Information C. Eligibility Information D. Application and lasix to bumex conversion Submission Information E.

Application Review Information F. Federal Award Administration Information G. Federal Awarding Agency lasix to bumex conversion Contact Information A. Program Description The Public Transportation COVID-19 Research Demonstration Grant Program is funded through the Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C.

5312), with the goal to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the COVID-19 public health emergency. Eligible projects lasix to bumex conversion will propose to develop and deploy innovative solutions in four major areas. (1) Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and disinfection. (2) exposure mitigation measures lasix to bumex conversion.

(3) innovative mobility such as contactless payments. And (4) measures that strengthen public confidence in transit. As required lasix to bumex conversion by 49 U.S.C. 5312(e)(4), projects funded under this NOFO must participate in an evaluation by an independent outside entity that will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the success or failure of the projects funded under this subsection and any plan for broad-based implementation of the innovation promoted by successful projects.

B. Federal Award Information FTA makes available $10,000,000 in fiscal year (FY) 2020 funds under the Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C lasix to bumex conversion. 5312) to finance the Public Transportation COVID-19 Research Demonstration Grant Program. FTA may supplement the total funds available if additional funding becomes available at the time project selections are made.

FTA will grant pre-award authority starting on the date of the project award announcement for selected projects and should be completed within 24 months from the date lasix to bumex conversion of award. Funds are available only for eligible expenses incurred after the announcement of project selections. C. Eligibility Information (1) Eligible Applicants Eligible applicants include State and local governmental lasix to bumex conversion authorities, direct recipients of Urbanized Area (49 U.S.C.

5307) and Rural Area (49 U.S.C. 5311) formula funds, and lasix to bumex conversion Indian tribes. Eligible applicants are limited to FTA grantees or subrecipients who would be the primary beneficiaries of the innovative products and services that are developed—typically public transit agencies. Except for projects proposed by Indian tribes, proposals for projects in rural (non-urbanized) areas must be submitted as part of a consolidated State proposal.

States and other eligible applicants lasix to bumex conversion also may submit consolidated proposals for projects in urbanized areas. The submission of the Statewide application will not preclude the submission and consideration of any application from other eligible recipients in an urbanized area in a State. Proposals may contain projects to be implemented by the recipient or its subrecipients. Eligible subrecipients include public agencies, private nonprofit organizations, and private lasix to bumex conversion providers engaged in public transportation.

Eligible applicants may submit consolidated proposals for projects. (2) Cost Sharing or Matching The maximum Federal share of project costs is 100 percent. FTA may give additional consideration to lasix to bumex conversion applicants that propose a local share and may view these applicants as more competitive. The applicant must document the source(s) of the local match, if any, in the grant application.

For any lasix to bumex conversion applicants proposing match, eligible local match sources include the following. Cash from non-Government sources other than revenues from providing public transportation services. Revenues derived from the sale of advertising and concessions. Revenues generated lasix to bumex conversion from value capture financing mechanisms.

Funds from an undistributed cash surplus. Replacement or depreciation cash fund or reserve. New capital lasix to bumex conversion. Or in-kind contributions.

(3) Eligible Projects Eligible projects will propose innovative solutions to improve operational efficiencies of transit agencies and enhance the mobility of transit users, through projects that demonstrate innovative solutions for. Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning lasix to bumex conversion and disinfection. Exposure mitigation measures such a real-time notification of rail and bus passenger loads. New multi-modal payment innovative mobility systems such as lasix to bumex conversion contactless payments.

And measures that strengthen public confidence in transit. Each applicant may only submit one proposal.Start Printed Page 63655 D. Application and Submission Information (1) Address and Form of Application Submission Applications must be submitted lasix to bumex conversion through GRANTS.GOV. Applicants can find general information for submitting applications through GRANTS.GOV at www.fta.dot.gov/​howtoapply, along with specific instructions for the forms and attachments required for submission.

Mail and fax submissions will not be accepted. (2) Content lasix to bumex conversion and Form of Application Submission a. Proposal Submission A complete proposal submission consists of at least two forms. 1.

The SF-424 lasix to bumex conversion Mandatory Form (downloadable from GRANTS.GOV) and 2. The supplemental form for the FY 2020 COVID-19 Demonstration Program (downloadable from GRANTS.GOV), which is available on FTA's website at (placeholder for FTA COVID-19 Demonstration Program). The application must include responses to all sections of the SF-424 mandatory form and the supplemental form lasix to bumex conversion unless a section is indicated as optional. FTA will use the information on the supplemental form to determine applicant and project eligibility for the program and to evaluate the proposal against the selection criteria described in part E of this notice.

FTA will accept only one supplemental form per SF-424 submission. FTA encourages applicants to consider submitting a single supplemental form that includes multiple activities lasix to bumex conversion to be evaluated as a consolidated proposal. Applicants may attach additional supporting information to the SF-424 submission, including but not limited to letters of support, project budgets, or excerpts from relevant planning documents. Supporting documentation must be described and referenced by file name in the appropriate response section of the supplemental form, or it may not be reviewed.

Information such lasix to bumex conversion as applicant name, Federal amount requested, local match amount, description of areas served, etc., may be requested in varying degrees of detail on both the SF-424 form and supplemental form. Applicants must fill in all fields unless stated otherwise on the forms. If applicants copy information into the supplemental form from another source, they should verify that the supplemental form has fully captured pasted text and that it has not truncated the text due to character limits built into the form. Applicants should use both the “Check Package for Errors” and lasix to bumex conversion the “Validate Form” validation buttons on both forms to check all required fields.

Applicants should also ensure that the Federal and local amounts specified are consistent. Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with lasix to bumex conversion the R.O.U.T.E.S. Initiative, the Department encourages applicants to consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas.

B. Application Content The SF-424 Mandatory Form and the supplemental form will prompt applicants for the required information, including. I. Applicant Name ii.

Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number iii. Key contact information (contact name, address, email address, and phone number) iv. Congressional district(s) where project will take place v. Project Information (title, executive summary, and type) vi.

A detailed description of the need for the project vii. A detailed description of how the project will support the Program objectives viii. Evidence that the applicant can provide the local cost shares ix. A description of the technical, legal, and financial capacity of the applicant x.

A detailed project budget xi. Details on the local matching funds xii. A detailed project timeline xiii. Whether the project impacts an Opportunity Zone (3) Unique Entity Identifier and System for Award Management (SAM) Each applicant is required to.

(1) Be registered in SAM before submitting an application. (2) provide a valid unique entity identifier in its application. And (3) continue to maintain an active SAM registration with current information at all times during which the applicant has an active Federal award or an application or plan under consideration by FTA. These requirements do not apply if the applicant.

(1) Is excepted from the requirements under 2 CFR 25.110(b) or (c). Or (2) has an exception approved by FTA under 2 CFR 25.110(d). FTA may not make an award until the applicant has complied with all applicable unique entity identifier and SAM requirements. If an applicant has not fully complied with the requirements by the time FTA is ready to make an award, FTA may determine that the applicant is not qualified to receive an award and use that determination as a basis for making a Federal award to another applicant.

All applicants must provide a unique entity identifier provided by SAM. Registration in SAM may take as little as 3-5 business days, but there can be unexpected steps or delays. For example, the applicant may need to obtain an Employer Identification Number. FTA recommends allowing ample time, up to several weeks, to complete all steps.

For additional information on obtaining a unique entity identifier, please visit www.sam.gov. (4) Submission Dates and Times Project proposals must be submitted electronically through GRANTS.GOV by 11:59 p.m. Eastern on November 2, 2020. Mail and fax submissions will not be accepted.

FTA urges applicants to submit applications at least 72 hours prior to the due date to allow time to correct any problems that may have caused either GRANTS.GOV or FTA systems to reject the submission. Proposals submitted after the deadline will only be considered under extraordinary circumstances not within the applicant's control. Deadlines will not be extended due to scheduled website maintenance. GRANTS.GOV scheduled maintenance and outage times are announced on the GRANTS.GOV website.

Within 48 hours after submitting an electronic application, the applicant should receive two email messages from GRANTS.GOV. (1) Confirmation of successful transmission to GRANTS.GOV. And (2) confirmation of successful validation by GRANTS.GOV. If the applicant does not receive confirmation of successful validation or receives a notice of failed validation or incomplete materials, the applicant must address the reason for the failed validation, as described in the email notice, and resubmit before the submission deadline.

If making a resubmission for any reason, applicants must include all original attachments regardless of which attachments were updated and check the box on the supplemental form indicating this is a resubmission. Applicants are encouraged to begin the process of registration on the GRANTS.GOV site well in advance of the submission deadline. Registration is Start Printed Page 63656a multi-step process, which may take several weeks to complete before an application can be submitted. Registered applicants may still be required to update their registration before submitting an application.

Registration in SAM is renewed annually and persons making submissions on behalf of the Authorized Organization Representative (AOR) must be authorized in GRANTS.GOV by the AOR to make submissions. (5) Funding Restrictions Funds may be used for post-award expenditures only. Funds under this NOFO cannot be used to reimburse projects for otherwise eligible expenses incurred prior to the date of project award announcements. (6) Other Submission Requirements FTA encourages applicants to identify scaled funding options in case insufficient funding is available to fund a project at the full requested amount.

If an applicant indicates that a project is scalable, the applicant must provide an appropriate minimum funding amount that will fund an eligible project that achieves the objectives of the program and meets all relevant program requirements. The applicant must provide a clear explanation of how a reduced award would affect the project budget and scope. FTA may award a lesser amount whether or not the applicant provides a scalable option. E.

Application Review Information (1) Project Evaluation Criteria Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with the R.O.U.T.E.S. Initiative, the Department will consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas. In addition, the Department will review and consider applications for funding pursuant to this Notice in accordance with the President's September 2, 2020 memorandum, entitled Memorandum on Reviewing Funding to State and Local Government Recipients of Federal Funds that Are Permitting Anarchy, Violence, and Destruction in American Cities, consistent with guidance from the Office of Management and Budget and the Attorney General and with all applicable laws.

FTA will evaluate proposals submitted according to the following criteria. (a) Project Innovation and Impact. (b) Project Approach. (c) National Applicability.

(d) Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer. And (e) Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity. FTA encourages each applicant to demonstrate how a project supports all criteria with the most relevant information the applicant can provide, regardless of whether such information has been specifically requested or identified in this notice. A.

Project Innovation and Impact i. Effectiveness of the project in achieving and demonstrating the specific objectives of this program. Ii. Demonstration of benefits in addressing the needs of the transit agency and industry and impacts to infrastructure, equipment, transit workforce, and riders.

Iii. Degree of improvement over current and existing technologies, designs, and/or practices applicable to the transit industry. B. Project Approach i.

Quality of the project approach such as existing partnerships, collaboration strategies and level of commitment of the project partners. Ii. Proposal is realistic in its approach to fulfill the milestones/deliverables, schedule and goals. C.

National Applicability i. Degree to which the project could be replicated by other transit agencies regionally or nationally. Ii. Ability to evaluate technologies, designs and/or practices in a wide variety of conditions and locales.

Iii. Degree to which the technology, designs and/or practices can be replicated by other transportation modes. D. Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer i.

Demonstrates a realistic plan for moving the results of the project into the transit marketplace (patents, conferences, articles in trade magazines, webinar, site visits, etc.). Ii. How the project team plans to work with the industry on improving best practices, guidance and/or standards, if applicable. Iii.

Demonstrate a clear understanding and robust approach to data collection, access and management. E. Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity Capacity of the applicant and any partners to successfully execute the project effort. There should be no outstanding legal, technical, or financial issues with the applicant that would make this a high-risk project.

(2) Review and Selection Process An FTA technical evaluation committee will evaluate proposals based on the published project evaluation criteria. Members of the technical evaluation committee will rate the applications and may seek clarification about any statement in an application. The FTA Administrator will determine the final selection and amount of funding for each project after consideration of the findings of the technical evaluation committee. Geographic diversity, diversity of the project type, the amount of local match to be provided, and the applicant's receipt and management of other Federal transit funds may be considered in FTA's award decisions.

Prior fare payment innovation efforts may receive priority consideration. The FTA Administrator will consider the following key DOT objectives. A. Utilizing alternative funding sources and innovative financing models to attract non-Federal sources of investment.

B. Whether the project is located in or supports public transportation service in a qualified opportunity zone designated pursuant to 26.U.S.C. 1400Z-1. And c.

The extent to which the project addresses challenges specific to the provision of rural public transportation. (3) FAPIIS Review Prior to making a grant award, FTA is required to review and consider any information about the applicant that is in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) accessible through SAM. An applicant may review and comment on information about itself that a Federal awarding agency previously entered. FTA will consider any comments by the applicant, in addition to the other information in FAPIIS, in making a judgment about the applicant's integrity, business ethics, and record of performance under Federal awards when completing the review of risk posed by applicants as described in 2 CFR 200.205 Federal Awarding Agency Review of Risk Posed by Applicants.

F. Federal Award Administration Information (1) Federal Award Notices FTA will announce the final project selections on the FTA website. Project recipients should contact their FTA Regional Office for additional information regarding allocations for Start Printed Page 63657projects. At the time project selections are announced, FTA will extend pre-award authority for the selected projects.

There is no blanket pre-award authority for these projects before announcement. There is no minimum or maximum grant award amount, but FTA intends to fund as many meritorious projects as possible. FTA only will consider proposals from eligible recipients for eligible activities. Due to funding limitations, projects selected for funding may receive less than the amount originally requested.

In those cases, applicants must be able to demonstrate that the proposed projects are still viable and can be completed with the amount awarded. (2) Administrative and National Policy Requirements a. Pre-Award Authority FTA will issue specific guidance to recipients regarding pre-award authority at the time of selection. FTA does not provide pre-award authority for competitive funds until projects are selected, and there are Federal requirements that must be met before costs are incurred.

For more information about FTA's policy on pre-award authority, see the FY 2020 Apportionments Notice published on June 3, 2020, at https://www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​FR-2020-06-03/​pdf/​2020-11946.pdf. b. Grant Requirements Selected applicants will submit a grant application through FTA's electronic grant management system and adhere to the customary FTA grant requirements for research project (insert Circular name). All competitive grants, regardless of award amount, will be subject to the Congressional notification and release process.

FTA emphasizes that third-party procurement applies to all funding awards, as described in FTA Circular 4220.1F, “Third Party Contracting Guidance.” However, FTA may approve applications that include a specifically identified partnering organization(s) (2 CFR 200.302(f)). When included, the application, budget, and budget narrative should provide a clear understanding of how the selection of these organizations is critical for the project and give sufficient detail about the costs involved. C. Planning FTA encourages applicants to engage the appropriate State Departments of Transportation, Regional Transportation Planning Organizations, or Metropolitan Planning Organizations in areas to be served by the project funds available under this program.

D. Standard Assurances The applicant assures that it will comply with all applicable Federal statutes, regulations, executive orders, FTA circulars, and other Federal administrative requirements in carrying out any project supported by the FTA grant. The applicant acknowledges that it is under a continuing obligation to comply with the terms and conditions of the grant agreement issued for its project with FTA. The applicant understands that Federal laws, regulations, policies, and administrative practices might be modified from time to time and may affect the implementation of the project.

The applicant agrees that the most recent Federal requirements will apply to the project unless FTA issues a written determination otherwise. The applicant must submit the Certifications and Assurances before receiving a grant if it does not have current certifications on file. E. Free Speech and Religious Liberty In connection with any program or activity conducted with or benefiting from funds awarded under this notice, recipients of funds must comply with all applicable requirements of Federal law, including, without limitation, the Constitution of the United States.

Statutory, regulatory, and public policy requirements, including without limitation, those protecting free speech, religious liberty, public welfare, the environment, and prohibiting discrimination. The conditions of performance, non-discrimination requirements, and other assurances made applicable to the award of funds in accordance with regulations of the Department of Transportation. And applicable Federal financial assistance and contracting principles promulgated by the Office of Management and Budget. In complying with these requirements, recipients must ensure that no concession agreements are denied or other contracting decisions made on the basis of speech or other activities protected by the First Amendment.

If the Department determines that a recipient has failed to comply with applicable Federal requirements, the Department may terminate the award of funds and disallow previously incurred costs, requiring the recipient to reimburse any expended award funds. (3) Reporting The post-award reporting requirements include submission of the Federal Financial Report (FFR) and Milestone Progress Report in TrAMS. An evaluation of the grant will occur at various points in the demonstration process and at the end of the project. In addition, FTA is responsible for producing an Annual Report to Congress that compiles evaluation of selected projects, including an evaluation of the performance measures identified by the applicants.

All applicants must develop an evaluation plan to measure the success or failure of their projects and describe any plans for broad-based implementation of successful projects. FTA may request data and reports to support the evaluation and Annual Report. A. Independent Evaluation To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the impacts and implications of each proposed COVID-19 Research Demonstration Program, projects funded under this announcement will require the recipient to conduct a third party independent evaluation of their project.

Recipients will be required to contract with a third party independent evaluator to assist in developing an evaluation plan, and collecting, storing and managing data required to fulfill the evaluation requirement. No more than 10 percent of the Federal share of the project may be used to hire the third-party independent evaluator and the inclusion of a third-party independent evaluation should be described in the grant application. If the project duration is more than two years, an interim evaluation report would need to be submitted to FTA, otherwise the evaluation report should be included as part of the final project report. B.

COVID-19 Research Demonstration Grant Program Evaluation Projects funded under this announcement will be required to establish a set of performance metrics set by the third-party independent evaluator and shared with FTA. G. Federal Awarding Agency Contacts Information For questions about applying, please contact Jamel El-Hamri email. Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone.

202-366-8985. A TDD is available at 1-800-877-8339 (TDDFIRS). To ensure that applicants receive accurate information about eligibility or the program, applicants are encouraged to contact FTA directly with questions, rather than through intermediaries or third parties.Start Printed Page 63658 FTA staff also may conduct briefings on the competitive grants selection and award process upon request. Start Signature K.

Jane Williams, Deputy Administrator. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-22316 Filed 10-7-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4910-57-P.

Start Preamble lasix side effects lasix and your kidneys Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. Notice of funding opportunity. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health emergency lasix side effects Start Printed Page 63654has had a significant impact on transit operations.

During a series of FTA listening sessions held over the last three months, transit agencies asked FTA to support research to identify solutions to address the operational challenges that they are facing as a result of COVID-19. In response, FTA makes available through this Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) funding to support research demonstration grants to public transit agencies to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the COVID-19 public health emergency. Demonstration grants under this NOFO are authorized under FTA's Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 lasix side effects U.S.C.

5312). Eligible projects will demonstrate innovative solutions to improve the operational efficiencies of transit systems and enhance mobility for their communities in four major areas. (1) Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and disinfection lasix side effects.

(2) exposure mitigation measures. (3) innovative mobility such as contactless payments. And (4) measures that strengthen public confidence lasix side effects in transit services.

The total funding available for awards under this NOFO is $10,000,000. FTA may supplement this amount if additional funding lasix side effects becomes available. Applicants must submit completed proposals for funding opportunity FTA-2020-015-TRI through the GRANTS.GOV “APPLY” function by 11:59 p.m.

Eastern Time on November 2, 2020. Prospective applicants should lasix side effects register as soon as possible on the GRANTS.GOV website to ensure they can complete the application process before the submission deadline. Application instructions are available on FTA's website at http://transit.dot.gov/​howtoapply and in the “FIND” module of GRANTS.GOV.

FTA will not accept mail and fax submissions. Start Further Info Please lasix side effects send any questions on this notice to Jamel El-Hamri email. Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone.

2020-366-8985. A Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD) is available for individuals lasix side effects who are deaf or hard of hearing at 1-800-877-8339. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Table of Contents A.

Program Description lasix side effects B. Federal Award Information C. Eligibility Information D.

Application and lasix side effects Submission Information E. Application Review Information F. Federal Award Administration Information G.

Federal Awarding Agency Contact Information A lasix side effects. Program Description The Public Transportation COVID-19 Research Demonstration Grant Program is funded through the Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C. 5312), with the goal to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the COVID-19 public health emergency.

Eligible projects will propose lasix side effects to develop and deploy innovative solutions in four major areas. (1) Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and disinfection. (2) exposure lasix side effects mitigation measures.

(3) innovative mobility such as contactless payments. And (4) measures that strengthen public confidence in transit. As required by lasix side effects 49 U.S.C.

5312(e)(4), projects funded under this NOFO must participate in an evaluation by an independent outside entity that will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the success or failure of the projects funded under this subsection and any plan for broad-based implementation of the innovation promoted by successful projects. B. Federal Award Information FTA makes available lasix side effects $10,000,000 in fiscal year (FY) 2020 funds under the Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C.

5312) to finance the Public Transportation COVID-19 Research Demonstration Grant Program. FTA may supplement the total funds available if additional funding becomes available at the time project selections are made. FTA will grant pre-award authority starting on the date of the project award announcement for selected projects and should be completed within 24 months lasix side effects from the date of award.

Funds are available only for eligible expenses incurred after the announcement of project selections. C. Eligibility Information (1) Eligible Applicants Eligible applicants include State lasix side effects and local governmental authorities, direct recipients of Urbanized Area (49 U.S.C.

5307) and Rural Area (49 U.S.C. 5311) formula lasix side effects funds, and Indian tribes. Eligible applicants are limited to FTA grantees or subrecipients who would be the primary beneficiaries of the innovative products and services that are developed—typically public transit agencies.

Except for projects proposed by Indian tribes, proposals for projects in rural (non-urbanized) areas must be submitted as part of a consolidated State proposal. States and other eligible applicants also may submit lasix side effects consolidated proposals for projects in urbanized areas. The submission of the Statewide application will not preclude the submission and consideration of any application from other eligible recipients in an urbanized area in a State.

Proposals may contain projects to be implemented by the recipient or its subrecipients. Eligible subrecipients include public agencies, private nonprofit organizations, and private providers engaged lasix side effects in public transportation. Eligible applicants may submit consolidated proposals for projects.

(2) Cost Sharing or Matching The maximum Federal share of project costs is 100 percent. FTA may give additional consideration to lasix side effects applicants that propose a local share and may view these applicants as more competitive. The applicant must document the source(s) of the local match, if any, in the grant application.

For any applicants proposing match, eligible local match sources include the lasix side effects following. Cash from non-Government sources other than revenues from providing public transportation services. Revenues derived from the sale of advertising and concessions.

Revenues generated lasix side effects from value capture financing mechanisms. Funds from an undistributed cash surplus. Replacement or depreciation cash fund or reserve.

New capital lasix side effects. Or in-kind contributions. (3) Eligible Projects Eligible projects will propose innovative solutions to improve operational efficiencies of transit agencies and enhance the mobility of transit users, through projects that demonstrate innovative solutions for.

Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and lasix side effects disinfection. Exposure mitigation measures such a real-time notification of rail and bus passenger loads. New multi-modal lasix side effects payment innovative mobility systems such as contactless payments.

And measures that strengthen public confidence in transit. Each applicant may only submit one proposal.Start Printed Page 63655 D. Application and Submission Information (1) Address and Form of Application Submission Applications must be submitted through lasix side effects GRANTS.GOV.

Applicants can find general information for submitting applications through GRANTS.GOV at www.fta.dot.gov/​howtoapply, along with specific instructions for the forms and attachments required for submission. Mail and fax submissions will not be accepted. (2) Content lasix side effects and Form of Application Submission a.

Proposal Submission A complete proposal submission consists of at least two forms. 1. The SF-424 Mandatory Form (downloadable lasix side effects from GRANTS.GOV) and 2.

The supplemental form for the FY 2020 COVID-19 Demonstration Program (downloadable from GRANTS.GOV), which is available on FTA's website at (placeholder for FTA COVID-19 Demonstration Program). The application must lasix side effects include responses to all sections of the SF-424 mandatory form and the supplemental form unless a section is indicated as optional. FTA will use the information on the supplemental form to determine applicant and project eligibility for the program and to evaluate the proposal against the selection criteria described in part E of this notice.

FTA will accept only one supplemental form per SF-424 submission. FTA encourages applicants to consider submitting a single supplemental form lasix side effects that includes multiple activities to be evaluated as a consolidated proposal. Applicants may attach additional supporting information to the SF-424 submission, including but not limited to letters of support, project budgets, or excerpts from relevant planning documents.

Supporting documentation must be described and referenced by file name in the appropriate response section of the supplemental form, or it may not be reviewed. Information such as applicant name, Federal amount requested, local match amount, description of areas served, etc., may be requested in varying degrees of detail on both the SF-424 form and lasix side effects supplemental form. Applicants must fill in all fields unless stated otherwise on the forms.

If applicants copy information into the supplemental form from another source, they should verify that the supplemental form has fully captured pasted text and that it has not truncated the text due to character limits built into the form. Applicants should use both the “Check Package for lasix side effects Errors” and the “Validate Form” validation buttons on both forms to check all required fields. Applicants should also ensure that the Federal and local amounts specified are consistent.

Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with the lasix side effects R.O.U.T.E.S. Initiative, the Department encourages applicants to consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas.

B. Application Content The SF-424 Mandatory Form and the supplemental form will prompt applicants for the required information, including. I.

Applicant Name ii. Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number iii. Key contact information (contact name, address, email address, and phone number) iv.

Congressional district(s) where project will take place v. Project Information (title, executive summary, and type) vi. A detailed description of the need for the project vii.

A detailed description of how the project will support the Program objectives viii. Evidence that the applicant can provide the local cost shares ix. A description of the technical, legal, and financial capacity of the applicant x.

A detailed project budget xi. Details on the local matching funds xii. A detailed project timeline xiii.

Whether the project impacts an Opportunity Zone (3) Unique Entity Identifier and System for Award Management (SAM) Each applicant is required to. (1) Be registered in SAM before submitting an application. (2) provide a valid unique entity identifier in its application.

And (3) continue to maintain an active SAM registration with current information at all times during which the applicant has an active Federal award or an application or plan under consideration by FTA. These requirements do not apply if the applicant. (1) Is excepted from the requirements under 2 CFR 25.110(b) or (c).

Or (2) has an exception approved by FTA under 2 CFR 25.110(d). FTA may not make an award until the applicant has complied with all applicable unique entity identifier and SAM requirements. If an applicant has not fully complied with the requirements by the time FTA is ready to make an award, FTA may determine that the applicant is not qualified to receive an award and use that determination as a basis for making a Federal award to another applicant.

All applicants must provide a unique entity identifier provided by SAM. Registration in SAM may take as little as 3-5 business days, but there can be unexpected steps or delays. For example, the applicant may need to obtain an Employer Identification Number.

FTA recommends allowing ample time, up to several weeks, to complete all steps. For additional information on obtaining a unique entity identifier, please visit www.sam.gov. (4) Submission Dates and Times Project proposals must be submitted electronically through GRANTS.GOV by 11:59 p.m.

Eastern on November 2, 2020. Mail and fax submissions will not be accepted. FTA urges applicants to submit applications at least 72 hours prior to the due date to allow time to correct any problems that may have caused either GRANTS.GOV or FTA systems to reject the submission.

Proposals submitted after the deadline will only be considered under extraordinary circumstances not within the applicant's control. Deadlines will not be extended due to im lasix injection site scheduled website maintenance. GRANTS.GOV scheduled maintenance and outage times are announced on the GRANTS.GOV website.

Within 48 hours after submitting an electronic application, the applicant should receive two email messages from GRANTS.GOV. (1) Confirmation of successful transmission to GRANTS.GOV. And (2) confirmation of successful validation by GRANTS.GOV.

If the applicant does not receive confirmation of successful validation or receives a notice of failed validation or incomplete materials, the applicant must address the reason for the failed validation, as described in the email notice, and resubmit before the submission deadline. If making a resubmission for any reason, applicants must include all original attachments regardless of which attachments were updated and check the box on the supplemental form indicating this is a resubmission. Applicants are encouraged to begin the process of registration on the GRANTS.GOV site well in advance of the submission deadline.

Registration is Start Printed Page 63656a multi-step process, which may take several weeks to complete before an application can be submitted. Registered applicants may still be required to update their registration before submitting an application. Registration in SAM is renewed annually and persons making submissions on behalf of the Authorized Organization Representative (AOR) must be authorized in GRANTS.GOV by the AOR to make submissions.

(5) Funding Restrictions Funds may be used for post-award expenditures only. Funds under this NOFO cannot be used to reimburse projects for otherwise eligible expenses incurred prior to the date of project award announcements. (6) Other Submission Requirements FTA encourages applicants to identify scaled funding options in case insufficient funding is available to fund a project at the full requested amount.

If an applicant indicates that a project is scalable, the applicant must provide an appropriate minimum funding amount that will fund an eligible project that achieves the objectives of the program and meets all relevant program requirements. The applicant must provide a clear explanation of how a reduced award would affect the project budget and scope. FTA may award a lesser amount whether or not the applicant provides a scalable option.

E. Application Review Information (1) Project Evaluation Criteria Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with the R.O.U.T.E.S.

Initiative, the Department will consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas. In addition, the Department will review and consider applications for funding pursuant to this Notice in accordance with the President's September 2, 2020 memorandum, entitled Memorandum on Reviewing Funding to State and Local Government Recipients of Federal Funds that Are Permitting Anarchy, Violence, and Destruction in American Cities, consistent with guidance from the Office of Management and Budget and the Attorney General and with all applicable laws. FTA will evaluate proposals submitted according to the following criteria.

(a) Project Innovation and Impact. (b) Project Approach. (c) National Applicability.

(d) Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer. And (e) Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity. FTA encourages each applicant to demonstrate how a project supports all criteria with the most relevant information the applicant can provide, regardless of whether such information has been specifically requested or identified in this notice.

A. Project Innovation and Impact i. Effectiveness of the project in achieving and demonstrating the specific objectives of this program.

Ii. Demonstration of benefits in addressing the needs of the transit agency and industry and impacts to infrastructure, equipment, transit workforce, and riders. Iii.

Degree of improvement over current and existing technologies, designs, and/or practices applicable to the transit industry. B. Project Approach i.

Quality of the project approach such as existing partnerships, collaboration strategies and level of commitment of the project partners. Ii. Proposal is realistic in its approach to fulfill the milestones/deliverables, schedule and goals.

C. National Applicability i. Degree to which the project could be replicated by other transit agencies regionally or nationally.

Ii. Ability to evaluate technologies, designs and/or practices in a wide variety of conditions and locales. Iii.

Degree to which the technology, designs and/or practices can be replicated by other transportation modes. D. Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer i.

Demonstrates a realistic plan for moving the results of the project into the transit marketplace (patents, conferences, articles in trade magazines, webinar, site visits, etc.). Ii. How the project team plans to work with the industry on improving best practices, guidance and/or standards, if applicable.

Iii. Demonstrate a clear understanding and robust approach to data collection, access and management. E.

Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity Capacity of the applicant and any partners to successfully execute the project effort. There should be no outstanding legal, technical, or financial issues with the applicant that would make this a high-risk project. (2) Review and Selection Process An FTA technical evaluation committee will evaluate proposals based on the published project evaluation criteria.

Members of the technical evaluation committee will rate the applications and may seek clarification about any statement in an application. The FTA Administrator will determine the final selection and amount of funding for each project after consideration of the findings of the technical evaluation committee. Geographic diversity, diversity of the project type, the amount of local match to be provided, and the applicant's receipt and management of other Federal transit funds may be considered in FTA's award decisions.

Prior fare payment innovation efforts may receive priority consideration. The FTA Administrator will consider the following key DOT objectives. A.

Utilizing alternative funding sources and innovative financing models to attract non-Federal sources of investment. B. Whether the project is located in or supports public transportation service in a qualified opportunity zone designated pursuant to 26.U.S.C.

1400Z-1. And c. The extent to which the project addresses challenges specific to the provision of rural public transportation.

(3) FAPIIS Review Prior to making a grant award, FTA is required to review and consider any information about the applicant that is in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) accessible through SAM. An applicant may review and comment on information about itself that a Federal awarding agency previously entered. FTA will consider any comments by the applicant, in addition to the other information in FAPIIS, in making a judgment about the applicant's integrity, business ethics, and record of performance under Federal awards when completing the review of risk posed by applicants as described in 2 CFR 200.205 Federal Awarding Agency Review of Risk Posed by Applicants.

F. Federal Award Administration Information (1) Federal Award Notices FTA will announce the final project selections on the FTA website. Project recipients should contact their FTA Regional Office for additional information regarding allocations for Start Printed Page 63657projects.

At the time project selections are announced, FTA will extend pre-award authority for the selected projects. There is no blanket pre-award authority for these projects before announcement. There is no minimum or maximum grant award amount, but FTA intends to fund as many meritorious projects as possible.

FTA only will consider proposals from eligible recipients for eligible activities. Due to funding limitations, projects selected for funding may receive less than the amount originally requested. In those cases, applicants must be able to demonstrate that the proposed projects are still viable and can be completed with the amount awarded.

(2) Administrative and National Policy Requirements a. Pre-Award Authority FTA will issue specific guidance to recipients regarding pre-award authority at the time of selection. FTA does not provide pre-award authority for competitive funds until projects are selected, and there are Federal requirements that must be met before costs are incurred.

For more information about FTA's policy on pre-award authority, see the FY 2020 Apportionments Notice published on June 3, 2020, at https://www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​FR-2020-06-03/​pdf/​2020-11946.pdf. b. Grant Requirements Selected applicants will submit a grant application through FTA's electronic grant management system and adhere to the customary FTA grant requirements for research project (insert Circular name).

All competitive grants, regardless of award amount, will be subject to the Congressional notification and release process. FTA emphasizes that third-party procurement applies to all funding awards, as described in FTA Circular 4220.1F, “Third Party Contracting Guidance.” However, FTA may approve applications that include a specifically identified partnering organization(s) (2 CFR 200.302(f)). When included, the application, budget, and budget narrative should provide a clear understanding of how the selection of these organizations is critical for the project and give sufficient detail about the costs involved.

C. Planning FTA encourages applicants to engage the appropriate State Departments of Transportation, Regional Transportation Planning Organizations, or Metropolitan Planning Organizations in areas to be served by the project funds available under this program. D.

Standard Assurances The applicant assures that it will comply with all applicable Federal statutes, regulations, executive orders, FTA circulars, and other Federal administrative requirements in carrying out any project supported by the FTA grant. The applicant acknowledges that it is under a continuing obligation to comply with the terms and conditions of the grant agreement issued for its project with FTA. The applicant understands that Federal laws, regulations, policies, and administrative practices might be modified from time to time and may affect the implementation of the project.

The applicant agrees that the most recent Federal requirements will apply to the project unless FTA issues a written determination otherwise. The applicant must submit the Certifications and Assurances before receiving a grant if it does not have current certifications on file. E.

Free Speech and Religious Liberty In connection with any program or activity conducted with or benefiting from funds awarded under this notice, recipients of funds must comply with all applicable requirements of Federal law, including, without limitation, the Constitution of the United States. Statutory, regulatory, and public policy requirements, including without limitation, those protecting free speech, religious liberty, public welfare, the environment, and prohibiting discrimination. The conditions of performance, non-discrimination requirements, and other assurances made applicable to the award of funds in accordance with regulations of the Department of Transportation.

And applicable Federal financial assistance and contracting principles promulgated by the Office of Management and Budget. In complying with these requirements, recipients must ensure that no concession agreements are denied or other contracting decisions made on the basis of speech or other activities protected by the First Amendment. If the Department determines that a recipient has failed to comply with applicable Federal requirements, the Department may terminate the award of funds and disallow previously incurred costs, requiring the recipient to reimburse any expended award funds.

(3) Reporting The post-award reporting requirements include submission of the Federal Financial Report (FFR) and Milestone Progress Report in TrAMS. An evaluation of the grant will occur at various points in the demonstration process and at the end of the project. In addition, FTA is responsible for producing an Annual Report to Congress that compiles evaluation of selected projects, including an evaluation of the performance measures identified by the applicants.

All applicants must develop an evaluation plan to measure the success or failure of their projects and describe any plans for broad-based implementation of successful projects. FTA may request data and reports to support the evaluation and Annual Report. A.

Independent Evaluation To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the impacts and implications of each proposed COVID-19 Research Demonstration Program, projects funded under this announcement will require the recipient to conduct a third party independent evaluation of their project. Recipients will be required to contract with a third party independent evaluator to assist in developing an evaluation plan, and collecting, storing and managing data required to fulfill the evaluation requirement. No more than 10 percent of the Federal share of the project may be used to hire the third-party independent evaluator and the inclusion of a third-party independent evaluation should be described in the grant application.

If the project duration is more than two years, an interim evaluation report would need to be submitted to FTA, otherwise the evaluation report should be included as part of the final project report. B. COVID-19 Research Demonstration Grant Program Evaluation Projects funded under this announcement will be required to establish a set of performance metrics set by the third-party independent evaluator and shared with FTA.

G. Federal Awarding Agency Contacts Information For questions about applying, please contact Jamel El-Hamri email. Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone.

202-366-8985. A TDD is available at 1-800-877-8339 (TDDFIRS). To ensure that applicants receive accurate information about eligibility or the program, applicants are encouraged to contact FTA directly with questions, rather than through intermediaries or third parties.Start Printed Page 63658 FTA staff also may conduct briefings on the competitive grants selection and award process upon request.

Start Signature K. Jane Williams, Deputy Administrator. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc.

2020-22316 Filed 10-7-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4910-57-P.

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Imagine being infected with a deadly where to buy generic lasix virus that makes you impervious to pain lasix and your kidneys. By the time you realize you are infected, it’s already where to buy generic lasix too late. You have spread it far and wide. Recent findings in my lab suggest that this scenario may be one reason where to buy generic lasix that people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, may be spreading the disease without knowing it.Most accounts to date have focused on how the virus invades cells via the ACE2 protein on the surface of many cells.

But recent studies, which have not yet been peer-reviewed, suggest there is another route to infecting the cell that enables it to infect the nervous system. This led where to buy generic lasix my research group to uncover a link between a particular cellular protein and pain – an interaction that is disrupted by the coronavirus. Our research has now been peer-reviewed and will be published in the journal PAIN.I am a scientist who studies how proteins on cells trigger pain signals that are transmitted through the body to the brain. When these proteins where to buy generic lasix are active, the nerve cells are talking to each other.

This conversation occurs at deafening levels in chronic pain. So by studying what causes the excitability of nerve cells to change, we can begin to unravel how where to buy generic lasix chronic pain becomes established. This also allows us to design ways to mute this conversation to blunt or stop chronic pain.My laboratory has a longstanding interest in designing nonopioid-based alternatives for pain management.Linking SARS-CoV-2 and painYou might be wondering how my lab began to probe the connection between SARS-CoV-2 and pain. We were inspired by two preliminary reports that appeared on the preprint server BioRxiv that showed that the infamous spike proteins on the surface of where to buy generic lasix the SARS-CoV-2 virus bound to a protein called neuropilin-1.

This means that the virus can also use this protein to invade nerve cells as well as through the ACE2 protein.For the past year, some six months before the pandemic took hold, my colleagues and I had been studying the role of neuropilin-1 in the context of pain perception. Because neuropilin-1, like the ACE2 receptor, allowed spike to enter the cells, we wondered if this alternate gateway could also be related to pain.Under normal circumstances, the neuropilin-1 protein controls the growth of blood vessels, and as well as the growth and survival of neurons.However, when neuropilin-1 where to buy generic lasix binds to a naturally occurring protein called called Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), this triggers pain signals. This signal is transmitted via the spinal cord into higher brain centers to cause the sensation we all know as pain.Staring at this jigsaw puzzle – neuropilin-1 and VEGF-A and neuropilin and spike – we wondered if there was a link between spike and pain.Previous research has shown a link between VEGF-A and pain. For people with osteoarthritis, for instance, studies have shown that increased activity of the VEGF gene where to buy generic lasix in fluids lubricating joints, like the knee, is associated with higher pain scores.Although activity of the neuropilin-1 gene is higher in biological samples from COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls and activity of the neuropilin-1 gene is increased in pain-sensing neurons in an animal model of chronic pain, the role of neuropilin-1 in pain has never been explored until now.In in vitro studies done in my lab using nerve cells, we showed that when spike binds to neuropilin-1 it decreases pain signaling, which suggests that in a living animal it would also have a pain-dulling effect.When the spike protein binds to the neuropilin-1 protein, it blocks the VEGF-A protein from binding and thus hijack’s a cell’s pain circuitry.

This binding suppresses the excitability of pain neurons, leading to lower sensitivity to pain.Crystal structure of neuropilin-1 b1 domain (white surface with binding site in red) showing binding of VEGF-A (left), cheap lasix online spike protein (middle), and the neuropilin-1 inhibitor EG00229 (right). (Credit. Dr. Samantha Perez-Miller, CC BY-SA)From the COVID-19 fog a new pain target emergesIf our finding that the new coronavirus is attacking cells through a protein associated with pain and disabling the protein can be confirmed in humans, it may provide a new pathway for drug development to treat COVID-19.A small molecule, called EG00229, targeting neuropilin-1 had been reported in a 2018 study.

This molecule binds to the same region of the neuropilin-1 protein as the viral spike protein and VEGF-A. So I and my colleagues asked if this molecule was able to block pain. It did, during pain simulations in rats. Our data reaffirmed the notion of neuropilin-1 as a new player in pain signaling.There is precedence for targeting the neuropilin-1 protein for cancer treatment.

For example, a Phase 1a clinical trial of an antibody called MNRP1685A (known under the product name Vesencumab) that recognizes and binds to neuropilin-1 and blocks VEGF-binding. This was mostly well tolerated in cancer patients, but it caused pain rather than blocking it.Our studies identify a different approach because we targeted blocking the pain-triggering VEGF-A protein, which then resulted in pain relief. So our preclinical work described here provides a rationale for targeting the VEGF-A/NRP-1 pro-pain signaling system in future clinical trials.Analysis of the structure of the neuropilin-1 receptor protein may allow design of drugs targeting this critical site which also controls axon growth, cell survival – in addition to pain relief.For instance, these neuropilin-1 receptor targeted drugs could potentially block viral infection. The testing of several candidate compounds, some of them on the FDA’s generally regarded as safe list, is currently underway by my group.Sneaky virus, fooling people into believing that they do not have COVID-19.

But, ironically, it may be gifting us with the knowledge of a new protein, critical for pain. Two roads emerge in the forest ahead. (1) block neuropilin-1 to limit SARS-CoV-2 entry, and (2) block neuropilin-1 to block pain.Rajesh Khanna is a Professor of Pharmacology, University of Arizona. This article originally appeared on The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.

Imagine being infected with a deadly virus that lasix side effects makes you impervious to pain. By the time you lasix side effects realize you are infected, it’s already too late. You have spread it far and wide. Recent findings in my lab suggest that this scenario may be one reason that people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, may be spreading the disease without knowing it.Most accounts to date have focused on how the virus invades cells via the ACE2 protein on the lasix side effects surface of many cells. But recent studies, which have not yet been peer-reviewed, suggest there is another route to infecting the cell that enables it to infect the nervous system.

This led my lasix side effects research group to uncover a link between a particular cellular protein and pain – an interaction that is disrupted by the coronavirus. Our research has now been peer-reviewed and will be published in the journal PAIN.I am a scientist who studies how proteins on cells trigger pain signals that are transmitted through the body to the brain. When these proteins are active, lasix side effects the nerve cells are talking to each other. This conversation occurs at deafening levels in chronic pain. So by lasix side effects studying what causes the excitability of nerve cells to change, we can begin to unravel how chronic pain becomes established.

This also allows us to design ways to mute this conversation to blunt or stop chronic pain.My laboratory has a longstanding interest in designing nonopioid-based alternatives for pain management.Linking SARS-CoV-2 and painYou might be wondering how my lab began to probe the connection between SARS-CoV-2 and pain. We were inspired by two preliminary lasix side effects reports that appeared on the preprint server BioRxiv that showed that the infamous spike proteins on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus bound to a protein called neuropilin-1. This means that the virus can also use this protein to invade nerve cells as well as through the ACE2 protein.For the past year, some six months before the pandemic took hold, my colleagues and I had been studying the role of neuropilin-1 in the context of pain perception. Because neuropilin-1, like the ACE2 receptor, allowed spike to lasix side effects enter the cells, we wondered if this alternate gateway could also be related to pain.Under normal circumstances, the neuropilin-1 protein controls the growth of blood vessels, and as well as the growth and survival of neurons.However, when neuropilin-1 binds to a naturally occurring protein called called Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), this triggers pain signals. This signal is transmitted via the spinal cord into higher brain centers to cause the sensation we all know as pain.Staring at this jigsaw puzzle – neuropilin-1 and VEGF-A and neuropilin and spike – we wondered if there was a link between spike and pain.Previous research has shown a link between VEGF-A and pain.

For people with osteoarthritis, for instance, studies have shown that increased activity of the VEGF gene in fluids lubricating joints, like the knee, is associated with higher pain scores.Although activity of the neuropilin-1 gene is higher in biological samples from COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls and activity of the neuropilin-1 gene is increased in pain-sensing neurons in an animal model of chronic pain, the role of neuropilin-1 in pain has never been explored until now.In in vitro studies done in my lab using nerve cells, we showed that when spike binds to neuropilin-1 it decreases pain signaling, which suggests that in a living animal it would also have a pain-dulling effect.When the spike protein binds to the neuropilin-1 protein, it blocks the VEGF-A protein lasix side effects from binding and thus hijack’s a cell’s pain circuitry. This binding suppresses the excitability of pain neurons, leading to lower sensitivity to pain.Crystal structure of neuropilin-1 b1 domain (white surface with binding site in red) showing binding of VEGF-A (left), spike protein (middle), and the neuropilin-1 inhibitor EG00229 (right). (Credit. Dr. Samantha Perez-Miller, CC BY-SA)From the COVID-19 fog a new pain target emergesIf our finding that the new coronavirus is attacking cells through a protein associated with pain and disabling the protein can be confirmed in humans, it may provide a new pathway for drug development to treat COVID-19.A small molecule, called EG00229, targeting neuropilin-1 had been reported in a 2018 study.

This molecule binds to the same region of the neuropilin-1 protein as the viral spike protein and VEGF-A. So I and my colleagues asked if this molecule was able to block pain. It did, during pain simulations in rats. Our data reaffirmed the notion of neuropilin-1 as a new player in pain signaling.There is precedence for targeting the neuropilin-1 protein for cancer treatment. For example, a Phase 1a clinical trial of an antibody called MNRP1685A (known under the product name Vesencumab) that recognizes and binds to neuropilin-1 and blocks VEGF-binding.

This was mostly well tolerated in cancer patients, but it caused pain rather than blocking it.Our studies identify a different approach because we targeted blocking the pain-triggering VEGF-A protein, which then resulted in pain relief. So our preclinical work described here provides a rationale for targeting the VEGF-A/NRP-1 pro-pain signaling system in future clinical trials.Analysis of the structure of the neuropilin-1 receptor protein may allow design of drugs targeting this critical site which also controls axon growth, cell survival – in addition to pain relief.For instance, these neuropilin-1 receptor targeted drugs could potentially block viral infection. The testing of several candidate compounds, some of them on the FDA’s generally regarded as safe list, is currently underway by my group.Sneaky virus, fooling people into believing that they do not have COVID-19. But, ironically, it may be gifting us with the knowledge of a new protein, critical for pain. Two roads emerge in the forest ahead.

(1) block neuropilin-1 to limit SARS-CoV-2 entry, and (2) block neuropilin-1 to block pain.Rajesh Khanna is a Professor of Pharmacology, University of Arizona. This article originally appeared on The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original here..

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The Empire Justice Center published a report in May, 2013 exploring the policies that guide immigrant access to health care and making recommendations for improving lasix for water retention immigrant access through New York's Health cheap lasix online Insurance Exchange. New York's Exchange Portal. A Gateway to Coverage for Immigrants The report includes a new tool -- Immigrant Eligibility Crosswalk -- Eligibility by Immigration Status-- designed to help advocates and policymakers sort through the tangle of immigrant eligibility categories to determine who is eligible for which health care programs in 2014 and beyond. The report was made possible with support from the United Hospital Fund and benefited from the advice and input from many of our national partners in the effort to ensure maximum participation of immigrants in the nation's healthcare system as well as lasix for water retention experts from the New York State Department of Health and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. SEE more about "PRUCOL" immigrant eligibility for Medicaid in this article.

"Undocumented" immigrants are, with some exceptions for pregnant women and Child Health Plus, only eligible for "emergency Medicaid."NYS announced the 2020 Income and Resource levels in GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates ) and levels based on the Federal Poverty Level are in GIS 20 MA/02 – 2020 Federal Poverty Levels Here is the 2020 HRA Income and Resources Level Chart Non-MAGI - 2020 Disabled, 65+ or Blind ("DAB" or SSI-Related) and have Medicare MAGI (2020) (<. 65, Does not have Medicare)(OR has Medicare lasix for water retention and has dependent child <. 18 or <. 19 in school) 138% FPL*** Children <. 5 and pregnant women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN For lasix for water retention MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care.

See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF). All of the attachments with the various levels are posted here. NEED TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID lasix for water retention INCOME AND RESOURCE LEVELS?. Which household size applies?. The rules are complicated.

See rules lasix for water retention here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels. Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL New Yorkers. People in the "MAGI" category lasix for water retention - those NOT on Medicare -- have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not eligible before, or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &.

Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school. 42 C.F.R lasix for water retention. § 435.4. Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% FPL for pregnant women and babies <. Age 1, 154% FPL for children age lasix for water retention 1 - 19.

CAUTION. What is counted as income may not be what you think. For the NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged lasix for water retention 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by the same rules as before, explained in this outline and these charts on income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI). There are good changes and bad changes.

GOOD. Veteran's lasix for water retention benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income. BAD. There is no more "spousal" or parental refusal for this population (but there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of lasix for water retention the rules see.

ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person. HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules depending on lasix for water retention the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size. People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size.

These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with some exceptions explained in this article lasix for water retention. Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population. Their household size will be determined using federal income tax rules, which are very complicated. New rule is explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (PDF) pp. 8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size.

See slides 28-49. Also seeLegal Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient. Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category. Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that child's income causes other family members to lose Medicaid eligibility. See 18 NYCRR 360-4.2, MRG p.

573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION. Different people in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI. The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid. Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL).

Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples. This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income.

The Empire Justice Center published a report in May, 2013 exploring the policies that guide immigrant access to health care and making recommendations for improving immigrant access through New York's Health Insurance Exchange lasix side effects. New York's Exchange Portal. A Gateway to Coverage for Immigrants The report includes a new tool -- Immigrant Eligibility Crosswalk -- Eligibility by Immigration Status-- designed to help advocates and policymakers sort through the tangle of immigrant eligibility categories to determine who is eligible for which health care programs in 2014 and beyond. The report was made possible with support from the United Hospital Fund and benefited from the advice and input from many of our national partners in the effort to ensure maximum participation of immigrants in the nation's healthcare system as well as experts from the New York State Department of Health and the Centers for Medicare lasix side effects and Medicaid Services. SEE more about "PRUCOL" immigrant eligibility for Medicaid in this article.

"Undocumented" immigrants are, with some exceptions for pregnant women and Child Health Plus, only eligible for "emergency Medicaid."NYS announced the 2020 Income and Resource levels in GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates ) and levels based on the Federal Poverty Level are in GIS 20 MA/02 – 2020 Federal Poverty Levels Here is the 2020 HRA Income and Resources Level Chart Non-MAGI - 2020 Disabled, 65+ or Blind ("DAB" or SSI-Related) and have Medicare MAGI (2020) (<. 65, Does not have Medicare)(OR has Medicare and lasix side effects has dependent child <. 18 or <. 19 in school) 138% FPL*** Children <. 5 and pregnant lasix side effects women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care.

See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF). All of the attachments with the various levels are posted here. NEED TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID lasix side effects INCOME AND RESOURCE LEVELS?. Which household size applies?. The rules are complicated.

See lasix side effects rules here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels. Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL New Yorkers. People in the "MAGI" category - those NOT on Medicare -- have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not eligible before, or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a lasix side effects "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &.

Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school. 42 C.F.R lasix side effects. § 435.4. Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% FPL for pregnant women and babies <. Age 1, 154% FPL for children age 1 lasix side effects - 19.

CAUTION. What is counted as income may not be what you think. For the lasix side effects NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by the same rules as before, explained in this outline and these charts on income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI). There are good changes and bad changes.

GOOD. Veteran's lasix side effects benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income. BAD. There is no more "spousal" or parental refusal for this population (but there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of lasix side effects the rules see.

ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person. HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules depending on the "category" of the person seeking lasix side effects Medicaid. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size. People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size.

These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with some exceptions explained in lasix side effects this article. Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population. Their household size will be determined using federal income tax rules, which are very complicated. New rule is explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) lasix side effects of 2010 (PDF) pp. 8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size.

See slides 28-49. Also seeLegal lasix side effects Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient. Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category. Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that child's income causes other family members to lose Medicaid eligibility. See 18 NYCRR lasix side effects 360-4.2, MRG p.

573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION. Different people in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's lasix side effects household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI. The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid. Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL).

Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and lasix side effects without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples. This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income.

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August 26, basics 2020Contact lasix medication side effects. Eric Stann, 573-882-3346, StannE@missouri.eduCheryl S. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher lasix medication side effects S.

Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.Scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered possible biological markers that they hope could one day help identify the presence of an opioid use disorder during human pregnancy.Cheryl S. Rosenfeld, an author on the study, said lasix medication side effects women often take opioids for pain regulation during pregnancy, including oxycodone, so it’s important to understand the effects of these drugs on the fetal placenta, a temporary organ that is essential in providing nutrients from a mother to her unborn child. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S.

Bond Life Sciences Center lasix medication side effects and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of pregnant women diagnosed with an opioid use disorder has quadrupled between 1999 and 2014.“Many pregnant women are being prescribed opioids — in particular OxyContin, or oxycodone — to help with the pain they can experience during pregnancy, and this can lead to opioid use disorders,” Rosenfeld said. €œMany women also don’t want to admit to taking these drugs, and we know that children born from mothers who have taken opioids during pregnancy experience post-birth conditions, such as low-birth weight. But, so far no one has studied lasix medication side effects the potential ramifications of opioid use during fetal life.

Thus, we focused on the placenta because it is the main communication organ between the mother and her unborn child.”Previous studies examining these effects have used human cell cultures, but this is one of the first studies to use an animal model to examine how developmental exposure to these drugs affect the conceptus. In the study, Rosenfeld and her colleagues focused on how a mother’s use of oxycodone during her pregnancy can affect a mouse’s placenta. Mouse and human placentas are similar in many ways, including having placenta-specific cells in direct contact with a mother’s blood lasix medication side effects.

They found the use of this drug during pregnancy can negatively affect the placenta’s structure, such as reducing and killing cells that produce by-products needed for normal brain development. In addition, Rosenfeld said their findings show specific differences in genetic expressions between female and male placentas in response to maternal oxycodone exposure.“Our results show when mothers take oxycodone during pregnancy, it causes lasix medication side effects severe placental disruptions, including elevation of certain gene expressions,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe know what the normal levels should be and if there are any changes, then we know something might have triggered such effects.

For instance, in response to lasix medication side effects material oxycodone exposure, female placentas start increasing production of key genes essential in regulating material physiology. However, in male placentas, we see some of these same genes are reduced in expression. These expression patterns could be potential biomarkers for detecting exposure to oxycodone use.”Rosenfeld said by lasix medication side effects studying this in an animal model, it allows scientists to see these changes quicker than if they were completing a comparable study in people, because a pregnant mouse can give birth in 21 days compared to about nine months in people.“This also allows us to easily study other regions of the body, especially the brain of exposed offspring, that would be affected by taking these opioids,” Rosenfeld said.

€œWe can then use this information to help epidemiologists identify behaviors that people should be looking at in children whose mothers have taken these opioids.”Rosenfeld suggests that opioids should be added to other widely discussed warning factors during pregnancy, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. She said short-term use lasix medication side effects of opioids by pregnant women, such as someone who has kidney stones, might not cause much of an effect on their pregnancy, but that likely depends on when the mother is taking the drug while pregnant. Future plans for this study include analyzing how offspring are affected once they are born.Rosenfeld’s research is an example of an early step in translational medicine, or research that aims to improve human health by determining the relevance of animal science discoveries to people.

This research can provide the foundation for precision medicine, or personalized human health care. Precision medicine will be a key component of the NextGen Precision Health Initiative — the University of Missouri System’s top priority — by helping to accelerate medical breakthroughs for both patients in Missouri and beyond.The study, “Maternal oxycodone treatment causes pathophysiological changes in the mouse placenta,” lasix medication side effects was published in Placenta, the official journal of the International Federation of Placenta Associations. Other authors include Madison T.

Green, Rachel lasix medication side effects E. Martin, Jessica A. Kinkade, Robert lasix medication side effects R.

Schmidt, Nathan J. Bivens and Jiude Mao at lasix medication side effects MU. And Geetu Tuteja at Iowa State University.Funding was provided by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.First-of-its-kind study, based on a mouse model, finds living in a polluted environment could be comparable to eating a high-fat diet, leading to a pre-diabetic state CLEVELAND—Air pollution is the world’s leading environmental risk factor, and causes more than nine million deaths per year. New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows air pollution may play a role in the lasix medication side effects development of cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Importantly, the effects were reversible with cessation of exposure.

Researchers found that lasix medication side effects air pollution was a “risk factor for a risk factor” that contributed to the common soil of other fatal problems like heart attack and stroke. Similar to how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can lead to disease, exposure to air pollution could be added to this risk factor list as well. “In this study, we created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi or Beijing,” said Sanjay Rajagopalan, MD, first author on the study, Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine at University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Director of the Case lasix medication side effects Western Reserve University Cardiovascular Research Institute.

€œWe concentrated fine particles of air pollution, called PM2.5 (particulate matter component <. 2.5 microns) lasix medication side effects. Concentrated particles like this develop from human impact on the environment, such as automobile exhaust, power generation and other fossil fuels.” These particles have been strongly connected to risk factors for disease.

For example, lasix medication side effects cardiovascular effects of air pollution can lead to heart attack and stroke. The research team has shown exposure to air pollution can increase the likelihood of the same risk factors that lead to heart disease, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the mouse model study, three groups were observed.

A control lasix medication side effects group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to polluted air for 24 weeks, and a group fed a high-fat diet. Interestingly, the researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet. Both the air pollution and high-fat diet groups showed insulin resistance and abnormal metabolism lasix medication side effects – just like one would see in a pre-diabetic state.

These changes were associated with changes in the epigenome, a layer of control that can masterfully turn on and turn off thousands of genes, representing a critical buffer in response to environmental factors. This study is the first-of-its-kind to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to air pollution, compare and contrast these changes with that of eating an unhealthy diet, and examine the impact of air pollution cessation on these changes.“The good news is that these effects were reversible, at least lasix medication side effects in our experiments” added Dr. Rajagopalan.

€œOnce the lasix medication side effects air pollution was removed from the environment, the mice appeared healthier and the pre-diabetic state seemed to reverse.” Dr. Rajagopalan explains that if you live in a densely polluted environment, taking actions such as wearing an N95 mask, using portable indoor air cleaners, utilizing air conditioning, closing car windows while commuting, and changing car air filters frequently could all be helpful in staying healthy and limiting air pollution exposure.Next steps in this research involve meeting with a panel of experts, as well as the National Institutes of Health, to discuss conducting clinical trials that compare heart health and the level of air pollution in the environment. For example, if someone has a heart attack, should they be wearing an N95 mask or using a portable air filter at home during recovery?.

Dr lasix medication side effects. Rajagopalan and his team believe that it is important to address the environment as a population health risk factor and continue to diligently research these issues. The authors also note that these findings should encourage policymakers to enact measures aimed at reducing air pollution.Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor in lasix medication side effects the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, is the joint senior author on the study.

Drs. Rajagopalan and Biswal are co-PIs on the NIH grant that supported this work.###Rajagopalan, S., Biswal, S., lasix medication side effects et al. €œMetabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility.” Journal of Clinical Investigation.

DOI. 10.1172/JCI137315. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences TaRGET II Consortium grant U01ES026721, as well as grants R01ES015146 and R01ES019616..

August 26, lasix side effects 2020Contact. Eric Stann, 573-882-3346, StannE@missouri.eduCheryl S. Rosenfeld is a professor of lasix side effects biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.Scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered possible biological markers that they hope could one day help identify the presence of an opioid use disorder during human pregnancy.Cheryl S.

Rosenfeld, an author on the study, said women often take opioids for pain regulation during pregnancy, including oxycodone, so it’s important to understand the effects of these drugs on the fetal placenta, a temporary organ that is essential in providing nutrients lasix side effects from a mother to her unborn child. Rosenfeld is a professor of biomedical sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, investigator in the Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center and research faculty member in the Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.According to the Centers for Disease Control and lasix side effects Prevention, the number of pregnant women diagnosed with an opioid use disorder has quadrupled between 1999 and 2014.“Many pregnant women are being prescribed opioids — in particular OxyContin, or oxycodone — to help with the pain they can experience during pregnancy, and this can lead to opioid use disorders,” Rosenfeld said. €œMany women also don’t want to admit to taking these drugs, and we know that children born from mothers who have taken opioids during pregnancy experience post-birth conditions, such as low-birth weight.

But, so far no lasix side effects one has studied the potential ramifications of opioid use during fetal life. Thus, we focused on the placenta because it is the main communication organ between the mother and her unborn child.”Previous studies examining these effects have used human cell cultures, but this is one of the first studies to use an animal model to examine how developmental exposure to these drugs affect the conceptus. In the study, Rosenfeld and her colleagues focused on how a mother’s use of oxycodone during her pregnancy can affect a mouse’s placenta. Mouse and human placentas are similar in many ways, including having placenta-specific cells in direct contact with lasix side effects a mother’s blood.

They found the use of this drug during pregnancy can negatively affect the placenta’s structure, such as reducing and killing cells that produce by-products needed for normal brain development. In addition, Rosenfeld said their findings show specific differences in genetic expressions between female and male placentas in response to maternal oxycodone exposure.“Our results show lasix side effects when mothers take oxycodone during pregnancy, it causes severe placental disruptions, including elevation of certain gene expressions,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe know what the normal levels should be and if there are any changes, then we know something might have triggered such effects. For instance, in response to material oxycodone exposure, lasix side effects female placentas start increasing production of key genes essential in regulating material physiology.

However, in male placentas, we see some of these same genes are reduced in expression. These expression patterns could be potential biomarkers for detecting exposure to oxycodone use.”Rosenfeld said by studying this in an animal model, it allows scientists to see these changes quicker than if they were completing a comparable study in people, because a pregnant mouse can give birth in 21 days compared to about nine months lasix side effects in people.“This also allows us to easily study other regions of the body, especially the brain of exposed offspring, that would be affected by taking these opioids,” Rosenfeld said. €œWe can then use this information to help epidemiologists identify behaviors that people should be looking at in children whose mothers have taken these opioids.”Rosenfeld suggests that opioids should be added to other widely discussed warning factors during pregnancy, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. She said short-term use of opioids by pregnant women, such as someone who has kidney stones, might not cause much lasix side effects of an effect on their pregnancy, but that likely depends on when the mother is taking the drug while pregnant.

Future plans for this study include analyzing how offspring are affected once they are born.Rosenfeld’s research is an example of an early step in translational medicine, or research that aims to improve human health by determining the relevance of animal science discoveries to people. This research can provide the foundation for precision medicine, or personalized human health care. Precision medicine will be a key component of the NextGen Precision Health Initiative — the University of Missouri System’s top priority — by helping to accelerate medical breakthroughs for both patients in Missouri and beyond.The study, “Maternal oxycodone treatment causes pathophysiological changes lasix side effects in the mouse placenta,” was published in Placenta, the official journal of the International Federation of Placenta Associations. Other authors include Madison T.

Green, Rachel E lasix side effects. Martin, Jessica A. Kinkade, Robert lasix side effects R. Schmidt, Nathan J.

Bivens and Jiude Mao at lasix side effects MU. And Geetu Tuteja at Iowa State University.Funding was provided by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.First-of-its-kind study, based on a mouse model, finds living in a polluted environment could be comparable to eating a high-fat diet, leading to a pre-diabetic state CLEVELAND—Air pollution is the world’s leading environmental risk factor, and causes more than nine million deaths per year. New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows air lasix side effects pollution may play a role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes.

Importantly, the effects were reversible with cessation of exposure. Researchers found that air pollution was a “risk factor for a risk factor” that contributed to the common soil of other fatal problems like heart lasix side effects attack and stroke. Similar to how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can lead to disease, exposure to air pollution could be added to this risk factor list as well. “In this study, we created an environment that mimicked a polluted day in New Delhi lasix side effects or Beijing,” said Sanjay Rajagopalan, MD, first author on the study, Chief of Cardiovascular Medicine at University Hospitals Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Director of the Case Western Reserve University Cardiovascular Research Institute.

€œWe concentrated fine particles of air pollution, called PM2.5 (particulate matter component <. 2.5 microns) lasix side effects. Concentrated particles like this develop from human impact on the environment, such as automobile exhaust, power generation and other fossil fuels.” These particles have been strongly connected to risk factors for disease. For example, cardiovascular effects of air pollution can lead to lasix side effects heart attack and stroke.

The research team has shown exposure to air pollution can increase the likelihood of the same risk factors that lead to heart disease, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the mouse model study, three groups were observed. A control group receiving clean filtered air, a group exposed to polluted air for 24 weeks, and a group fed a high-fat lasix side effects diet. Interestingly, the researchers found that being exposed to air pollution was comparable to eating a high-fat diet.

Both the air pollution and high-fat diet groups showed lasix side effects insulin resistance and abnormal metabolism – just like one would see in a pre-diabetic state. These changes were associated with changes in the epigenome, a layer of control that can masterfully turn on and turn off thousands of genes, representing a critical buffer in response to environmental factors. This study is the first-of-its-kind to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes in response to air lasix side effects pollution, compare and contrast these changes with that of eating an unhealthy diet, and examine the impact of air pollution cessation on these changes.“The good news is that these effects were reversible, at least in our experiments” added Dr. Rajagopalan.

€œOnce the air pollution was removed from the environment, the mice appeared healthier and lasix side effects the pre-diabetic state seemed to reverse.” Dr. Rajagopalan explains that if you live in a densely polluted environment, taking actions such as wearing an N95 mask, using portable indoor air cleaners, utilizing air conditioning, closing car windows while commuting, and changing car air filters frequently could all be helpful in staying healthy and limiting air pollution exposure.Next steps in this research involve meeting with a panel of experts, as well as the National Institutes of Health, to discuss conducting clinical trials that compare heart health and the level of air pollution in the environment. For example, if someone has a heart attack, should they be wearing an N95 mask or using a portable air filter at home during recovery?. Dr lasix side effects.

Rajagopalan and his team believe that it is important to address the environment as a population health risk factor and continue to diligently research these issues. The authors also note that these findings should encourage policymakers to enact measures aimed at reducing air pollution.Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor in the Department lasix side effects of Environmental Health and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, is the joint senior author on the study. Drs. Rajagopalan and Biswal are co-PIs on the lasix side effects NIH grant that supported this work.###Rajagopalan, S., Biswal, S., et al.

€œMetabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI. 10.1172/JCI137315. This work was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences TaRGET II Consortium grant U01ES026721, as well as grants R01ES015146 and R01ES019616..

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Letzte Änderung: 20.11.2018 
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